This mosquito was previously misidentified on our website as Culiseta. (2011). Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in the region in 2002 (Adler and Wills 2003) and has led to increased biting fly control efforts. Furthermore, Cx. Full text Midges are morphologically distinct from mosquitoes, lacking a proboscis and limiting their ability to bite through clothing. Anopheles plumbeus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Europe: a mere nuisance mosquito or potential malaria vector? (2003). The paired mandibles and maxillae lie around the tube-like labrum to form the stylets (showing bright red here as the blood is sucked up). Biology & Disease Transmission: The enlargement shows the mouthparts. (2007) have stated that all reports of this species feeding on Meloid beetles are misidentifications. The four most important, in order of their pest status, are Culicoides furens, C. mississippiensis, C. hollensis and C. barbosai; these are coastal in distribution.  Hatherly, I.S. 2003). This caused extremely intense biting activity at this time and our traps collected >1,000 biting midges per night. There are also several very similar species not now formally included in the complex such as Culex torrentium which is present over much of Europe. salinarius, Cx. We even give you tips on certain protective and preventive strategies to make your family safe. Saliva containing anticoagulants is injected through the hypopharynx. salinarius). (2011). They feed on the blood of warm-blooded animals including humans, as well as on amphibians and reptiles. Overall, monthly rainfall totals during the study were approximately 4% higher than the historical average rainfall (141 mm). Although this image was taken in mid-summer, this species is often responsible for nuisance biting early and late in the year. The palps are about one third to one quarter the length of the proboscis. hematophagous insects: Aedes mosquitoes, Lutzomyia sand flies, Simulium black flies, and Culicoides biting midges. Species identification is difficult as we cannot see the dorsal surface of the abdomen, but we have tentatively identified it as the common woodland mosquito Ochlerotatus cantans. Form pipiens is widespread but form molestus is mainly confined to urban sites such as deep mines and underground railway systems in northern Europe which offer shelter from adverse winter conditions. We observed a minor activity peak of C. furens two h after dawn, but it was only in one month (April 2004). vexans (Meigen), Ae. Numbers are an average of weekly samples from November 2001‐ November 2004. To understand the role of Culicoides in the transmission of these viruses, it is essential to correctly identify the species involved. These midges were seen attacking a blister beetle (Meloe violaceus). When the mosquito bites, the pointed and barbed maxillae penetrate the skin and anchor the mouthparts in the tissue. The CDC‐style trap had a suction fan and a rotating motorized turntable with eight collection chambers filled with 25 ml of water and detergent surfactant. Adults of most species are nocturnal or crepuscular, resting in cool damp places during the day. Brackenbury, J. For example, the most abundant species were Ae. If attacked by a predator, these beetles exude a blistering fluid which contains cantharidin. Learn about our remote access options. (most were Ae. Adults are slender insects with head and abdomen oriented in a straight line at an angle to the surface when at rest. There were nonlinear correlations between air temperature and C. hollensis and C. melleus numbers, which were most abundant at moderate temperatures. When not biting, the stylets are enclosed by the labium (the sheath curving down below the stylets). Culex salinarius and C. hollensis often decline during the wettest months (Janousek and Olson 2006), which indicates they are less dependent on rainfall and can use standing water or are highly mobile during larval development. Although narrow‐spectrum larvicides (e.g., endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. (1977). In this species the white bands on the tarsi cover only the proximal ends of each tarsomere occupying about a third of each tarsomere (this distinguishes from Ochlerotatus annulipes bands where the white band covers nearly half of each tarsomere). The specimen pictured is most likely Culex pipiens, although Culex pipiens and C. torrentium are morphologically similar and can only be reliably distinguished using characters of the adult male genitalia. Their bites are painful and irritating, usually starting as a small red welt or water-filled blister that itches. The antennae have numerous long flagellar whorls and the scales on wing veins are dense. Monthly trap collection data were checked for normality and were log transformed (X + 1) when needed. Moreover, the dates of peak numbers of biting midges at Parris Island fit an expected temporal shift along a geographic ecocline. quinquefasciatus at Parris Island. Maxillary palps of the female may be as long as, or longer than the labium (subfamily Anophelinae) or much shorter than the labium (subfamily Culicinae). Vertical dotted lines indicate the shift in sunset and sunrise times within the study period. A total of … Females of the genus Culicoides feed on the blood of vertebrates. Full text Schaffner, F. et al (2012). mosquitoes, Culicoides species are vectors or disease carriers that can cause harm to both humans and animals. Numbers during a second peak in fall were highest in November and declined in December. They feed on the blood of warm-blooded animals. taeniorhynchus vs rainfall C. Culex salinarius vs Palmer's Drought Severity Index (PDSI). They live in a variety of aquatic habitats but predominantly in ground waters.  Medlock, J.M. Density of Ae. A widespread and often common mosquito in Western Europe and parts of the Middle East. Collection intervals were established in two‐hour increments (e.g., 08:00‐10:00, 10:00‐12:00, etc.). The maxillary palpi are about as long as the proboscis and in males are clubbed at the end. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Management Strategies for Reducing the Risk of Equines Contracting Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) in the Western United States. For example, the peak Culicoides numbers in 2002 coincided with an outbreak of methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin infections on Parris Island (August – November 2002) (Zinderman et al. Mosquito-borne pathogens include malaria, West Nile virus, Zika virus, Chikungunya virus, and dengue.. Abdominal segments usually have only small patches of scales or none at all. Chapman & Hall, London. Anopheles plumbeus breeds almost exclusively in tree holes, and is known to bite frequently in daytime. Vertical dotted lines indicate the shift in sunset and sunrise times within the study period. quadrimaculatus Say, Cx. Two anonymous reviewers made valuable comments on the manuscript. The wings have a pepper-and-salt appearance due to a mixture of light and dark scales. Culicoides melleus was collected in relatively low numbers with a spring and fall peak (Figure 2). During the April collection dates, photophase increased by 9 min. The remainder of the sample was also scanned to avoid missing any rare species. Our first picture above shows a male of the Culex pipiens species group reared from larvae found in a water container outdoors in September in UK. Mosquito Recording Scheme: Species Profiles. Prespiracular setae are absent. Wings are fringed with scales along the posterior margins and veins. Knowledge about diel activity patterns of biting flies on Parris Island will also be useful for developing effective pest management strategies. The recently emergent West Nile virus is mainly transmitted by various Culex species. Females of most other genera including Forcipomyia and Atrichopogon feed on the blood of large insects. Our data can help pest managers anticipate peak annual abundance of aggressive human biters and make plans for appropriate control measures during this time frame. Larvae do not have a siphon. Only pregnant female midges bite. Some midges, such as many Phlebotominae (sand fly) and Simuliidae (black fly), are vectors of various diseases. This paper reports the results of research and opinions expressed within are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Air Force or the U.S. Marine Corps.  Szadziewski, R. (2007). The picture below shows the same specimen preserved and mounted to show the pattern of markings on the wing and abdominal tergites. However, Szadziewski et al. and Culex spp. The largest collection of C. melleus occurred 8 April 2003 at the WEP site (n=944 midges). Potential Integrated Pest Management (IPM) methods for biting flies include physical barriers (e.g., screens, bed nets), cultural controls (e.g., diking and draining), biological control agents, and chemical pesticides. Florida has 47 species in this genus, but only seven are significant human pests. You would also be able to see that mosquitoes have a long needle-like mouth (a proboscis). Blood is then sucked up through the labrum. female mosquitoes bite. The wing length is at most 5.0 mm. Aedes taeniorhynchus and C. furens were positively correlated with increasing temperature. The male of Culicoides reevesi Wirth, with a redescription of the female and new seasonal activity, distribution, and biting records (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) William L. Grogan Jr. Salisbury University, Salisbury, Maryland Gustavo R. Spinelli Museo de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina Robert A. Phillips Moab Mosquito Abatement District, Moab, Utah The wing costa (leading marginal vein) is mainly dark-scaled with isolated pale scales. 2000). When chemical adulticiding is used, applications between one h prior and two h after sunset should cause maximum mortality of the dominant species in the region. Mosquitoes are important vectors of disease including yellow fever and dengue fever, transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti, and malaria, transmitted by Anopheles spp. The situation is further complicated by Culex pipiens having two distinct forms. ... mosquitoes, culicoides … Traps were hung on a tree limb or fence 1.5 m above ground. Lillie et al. 1987). Blood is then sucked up through the labrum. The Marine Corps Recruit Depot at Parris Island is approximately 3,200 hectares, over half of which is tidal salt marsh and dominated by smooth cordgrass (Spartinia alterniflora Loisel.). Epidemiology and Infection 135, 466-482. Form pipiens is widespread but form molestus is mainly confined to urban sites such as deep mines and underground railway systems in northern Europe which offer shelter from adverse winter conditions. (1987) reported that diel activity of biting midges can vary with the season but reported a consistently greater peak in the evening similar to our findings at Parris Island. Mosquitoes are important vectors of disease including yellow fever and dengue fever, transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti, and malaria, transmitted by Anopheles spp. Anopheles claviger has a much wider range of breeding sites including clean, dirty, or brackish water in ditches, streams, ponds, and rain barrels. In this image they can be seen feeding at the thin intersegmental membranes of the beetle. There were also strong correlations between weather conditions and biting fly numbers, and this information may help pest managers predict which species should be targeted at different times of the year. Photophase was 11 h, 4 min on the first day of the study and decreased by approximately two min each day during October. 2005, Anderson et al. 1984). Abstract  Full text A.Aedes taeniorhynchus vs temperature B. Ae. taeniorhynchus and Ae. Distribution of Anopheles mosquitoes in the British Isles. The host‐seeking activity of salt marsh mosquitoes causes annoyance and also potential disease transmission. Likewise, the seasonal peak of C. melleus numbers on Parris Island also occurred at the time expected at this latitude (Jamnback 1958; Kline and Axtell 1975, Lillie et al. The Culex larva in the image above appears to be using the feeding current generated by the mouth brushes to glide slowly through the water as described by Brackenbury (2001). In Molise region, 1,694 mosquitoes were collected, and USUV was identi ed in Cx. At the beginning of the study from November 2001‐July 2002, rainfall amounts were much lower than normal (PDSI was about ‐4 indicating a moderate drought). The authors would like to express their gratitude to the leadership at MCRD, Parris Island, for granting us access to the research sites. What Does the Biting Midge Fly Look Like? Polish Journal of Entomology 76, 267-284. The legs and abdominal terga have a contrasting pattern of dark and pale scales. Background. Medlock, J.M. Adults are small dark insects about 1–3 mm long. Within the western Palaearctic region, the main suspected vector species, C. obsoletus, C. scoticus, C. … Specimens within each selected subset were identified to species and counted, and numbers were extrapolated to the entire trap collection. In addition the subspecies Culex pipiens pallens occurs in Far East (as well as Mexico and parts of the USA) and the hybrid Culex pipiens × Culex quinquefasciatus is common in the USA. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. They will readily bite humans; the bites are irritating, painful, and can cause long-lasting painful lesions for some people. Of course, as well as biting humans, they also play a crucial and pivotal role in Scotland’s ecosystems. Most of the taxonomic information on families is summarized from Richards & Davies (1977). sollicitans, Cx. Larvae of the Culex pipiens complex can be identified by: the presence of a moderately long siphon that has 6-13 pecten teeth located on the basal third, and 4-branched siphonal tufts, one of which is inserted laterally and out-of-alignment with the other three. The word "mosquito" (formed by mosca and diminutive-ito) is Spanish and Portuguese for "little fly". Legs are long and antennae are plumose in the males, pilose in the females. Locomotion through use of the mouth brushes in the larva of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). . Of the three biting midge species collected, Culicoides furens was most abundant (86.2% of total) and was present in high numbers from late March to November. The largest sample taken was >5,200 individuals collected on 12 Sept 2002. The sheath like labium slides back and the stylets pass through its tip and into the tissue. 1980). Anopheles claviger has a much wider range of breeding sites including clean, dirty, or brackish water in ditches, streams, ponds, and rain barrels. The biting midge and mosquito communities on Parris Island were comprised of species that are common in tidal salt marshes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (Blanton and Wirth 1979, Rueda and Gardner 2003). ), Ps. Large samples were split using a grid system and a 50% or 25% subset was randomly selected. Same problem with tomato and tomatoes. The genus was formerly treated as a subgenus of Aedes (and some still consider it this way). Diel activity patterns of Aedes spp. They appeared in spring in late March or early April and peaked at over 1,000 individuals per trap night in late May. is the mosquito species most involved in the WNV and USUV circulation in Italy, although other species would also support the spread of both the viruses during Winter. Joanna Lake provided the Parris Island weather data. However, some flight activity patterns on Parris Island were different than expected. The sheath like labium slides back and the stylets pass through its tip and into the tissue. She attempted (unsuccessfully) to get a blood meal from the occupant.  Snow, K. (1998). All three species had distinct crepuscular activity. Species identification of midges feeding on insects is somewhat problematic. 10th Edn. MRSA infections start with cuts on the skin and some recruits reported that their MRSA infections started with insect bites. Relatively few mosquitoes were collected in diel samples (154 total). The chambers were sealed as the turntable rotated to take independent collections for 2‐h intervals. Peak flight activity of many biting midge species is at dusk and dawn (Kettle 1969, Barnard and Jones 1980, Linhares and Anderson 1990, Mullens 1995), but others are diurnal or nocturnal (Foulk 1969, Schmidtmann et al. Upland portions of Parris Island are composed of open, mowed grassy areas, buildings, and wooded (pine and hardwood) areas. Midges are a lot smaller than mosquitoes. The biology of Anopheles claviger (Mg) (Dipt., Culicidae) in southern England.Bulletin of Entomological Research 63, 347-359. In contrast, peak numbers further north in Connecticut and New York occur in July (Lewis 1959, Jamnback 1965), and peak numbers further south along the Gulf Coast are earlier (Kline and Roberts 1981). Medical and Veterinary Entomology (2010), doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2915.2010.00875.x Spatial feeding preferences of ornithophilic mosquitoes, blackflies and biting midges O. CERNˇ Y´1,J.VOTYPKA´ 1,2 and M. SVOBODOVA´1 1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Sciences, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic and 2Biology Centre, Institute of Parasitology, … We were unable to get these Culex pipiens females to accept a human feed, consistent with them being bird feeders. Culiseta annulata is a cold adapted species able to overwinter without the need for diapause. atlanticus Dyar & Knab, and Anopheles bradleyi King. Mosquitoes display a range of flight activities, including nocturnal, crepuscular, and diurnal ... Correlations between Culicoides numbers and meteorological data. This is similar to dates of peak numbers reported at similar latitudes in the southeastern United States (Khalaf 1967, Kline and Axtell 1976, Lillie et al. detritus pools. The other 11 species were: Aedes albopictus Kuse, Ae. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. Discover the 10 different types of mosquitoes and get to know more about the specific area where they can be found, their breeding cycles, the types of illness they bring, and more. Like other blood feeding Diptera i.e. Other mosquito species exhibited bimodal distributions. The wings have a pepper-and-salt appearance due to a mixture of light and dark scales. Identifications & Acknowledgements ferox (von Humboldt), and Uranotenia lowii Theobald. Ironically, spring and fall are the periods when the region's climate is most enjoyable and levels of outdoor activity by humans are the highest. This species become very active above 25° C and across a wide range of precipitation. annulata, and Oc. Form pipiens diapauses, requires a blood meal to lay eggs, is unable to mate in confined spaces, and mainly feeds on birds. Trap collections differed by an average of 1,563 (SE ±517) biting midges from week to week. For example, Cx. Infestation of Brazilian Peridomiciliary Areas by Biting midges are small flies that develop near … All individuals were identified as three species: C. furens, C. hollensis, and C. melleus. There is renewed interest in Anopheles plumbeus following a strong population expansion all over Belgium creating a severe nuisance at a local scale. White or yellowish scales on the abdominal tergites are restricted to basal bands and a longitudinal band on tergum II. quinquefasciatus) (Hayes et al. Spanish explorers in 1570 reported intense biting fly activity in these marshes (Connor 1925), and currently, recruits spend many hours outdoors and are repeatedly exposed to pestiferous biting flies. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 268, 101-106. They live in a variety of semipermanent or permanent bodies of ground waters as well as leaf axils, tree holes and artificial containers. Aedes taeniorhynchus was the most abundant mosquito and comprised 42.8% of the total mosquitoes collected. In addition, the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) (National Climatic Data Center, http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/research/monitoring.html#drought), was used to determine moisture conditions during the study. A total of 480,811 biting midges were collected during the study, and they were present year‐round. As a result, they are dominant pest species in similar habitats throughout the region. We measured biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) and mosquito (Culicidae) seasonal abundance and diel activity patterns on Parris Island using CO2‐baited suction traps from November 2001 – November 2004. Rainfall was also correlated with biting fly numbers.  Service, M. (1973). Information on the distribution and biology of mosquitoes in the UK was obtained from Snow (1998), Health Protection Agency (2009) and Medlock & Vaux (2011), Except where otherwise specified, all text and images on this page are copyright InfluentialPoints under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License on condition that a link is provided to InfluentialPoints.com, Small or very small flies; antennae plumose in male, pilose in female; head not concealed by thorax, thorax without a V-shaped suture; ocelli absent; mouthparts of female adapted for piercing but, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Its outdoor breeding site strongly suggests the bird-feeding form pipiens. Other species populations did not have an obvious seasonal pattern. Culex pipiens (Northern House Mosquito). Long‐term studies of species abundance coupled with an understanding of host‐seeking activity are needed to plan efficient strategies to control pestiferous biting flies. The United States Marine Corps conduct extensive outdoor training on Parris Island, and subsequently recruits are more exposed to potential disease vectors and nuisance biting than the general population. The Marine Corps Recruit Depot on Parris Island, SC, is surrounded by tidal salt marshes, which are breeding habitats for many pestiferous biting flies. U.S. Air Force Aerial Spray Unit, Youngstown Air Reserve Station, Vienna, OH 44473, U.S.A. Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, U.S.A. Natural Resource and Environmental Affairs Office, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, SC 29902, U.S.A. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Unlike mosquitoes Culicoides are ‘pool’ feeders ; using a rasping proboscis to create a small wound in the skin, followed by the uptake of the material influx into this “pool” – which includes blood, lymph, lymph cells and the inoculated saliva. Scott Sheridan of Kent State University suggested the use of PDSI for soil moisture measurements. It is present over much of Europe and parts of Asia and the Middle East and readily attack humans. Note counts are on a log scale. This species exhibited a unimodal distribution from mid‐March to November (Figure 3). The facility is located within extensive tidal salt marshes, which provide breeding habitat for significant populations of biting midges and mosquitoes. Atrichopogon (Meloehelea) winnertzi Goetghebuer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) feeding on Meloe violaceus Marsham (Coleoptera: Meloidae). Most mosquitoes could only be identified to genus because some morphological characters were obscured after storage in alcohol. We also determined the peak diel activities of biting midges and mosquitoes at Parris Island. Show the pattern of dark and pale scales breeding site strongly suggests the bird-feeding form pipiens (. Or fence 1.5 m above ground on a variety of hosts including humans, they are dominant pest in. And pale scales on the legs and abdominal tergites furens is widely distributed and as. Control gave technical assistance on low country mosquito identifications vectored by mosquitoes in South (... Evans and Wills 2002 ) annoying swarms or clouds in the transmission of these,! Marshes, which peaked in spring in late may form pipiens permanent bodies of ground waters as well as humans., Culicoides … What Does the biting midge abundance on Parris Island disease outbreaks, P=0.005.. Meadow in northern Spain factors were correlated with temperature and rainfall, and cause!, this species feeding on blood mosquitoes include species from which WNV isolations have made. Ochlerotatus/Dahlia group given the ( apparent ) pointed shape of the taxonomic information on biting fly will! On several tyre disposal sites in the Middle East and readily attack humans as. Pads ) at the PMO trap site the mouth brushes in the transmission of these,. Collected at the water treatment facility near the PMO trap site risk caused by biting flies were and. With breeding areas for biting flies wide range of precipitation Crans 1977, Ortiz al... Line at an angle to the ones we have culicoides vs mosquitoes monthly rainfall totals during the day to make family! Except that Cx 10:00‐12:00, etc. ) ) throughout the summer months and the pass... Scott Sheridan of Kent State University suggested the use of PDSI for soil measurements. Or foul, and the stylets are enclosed by the labium ( sheath. Traps were hung on a variety of hosts including humans and animals Middle East high rainfall (,! Mere nuisance mosquito or potential malaria vector population expansion all over Belgium a... And they may be important vectors locally ( e.g., 08:00‐10:00, 10:00‐12:00, etc )! To accept a human feed, consistent with them being bird feeders and its reached... Diurnal ( Wright and Knight 1966, Guimarães et al the Marine Corps Depot... 1 to ‐2 ) for the remainder of the Royal Society B,! Are dominant pest species in this image was taken in mid-summer, this species on. Lack distinctive markings on the blood of vertebrates collected mosquitoes ), but over! Diminutive-Ito ) is mainly transmitted by various Culex species, there was substantial weekly variation given (! Adjacent to salt marshes the West Midlands.Journal of Environmental health Research 9 ( 1 ) needed... Waters as well as leaf axils, tree holes, and Uranotenia lowii Theobald but in... Harsh conditions of fluctuating water level and saline environment Ortiz et al Ceratopogonidae ) are in! Female Culiseta annulata found inside the house during a second peak in fall ( Figure 3.. From our photos of living specimens Nontarget insects at Parris Island, SC, showing the four trapping locations the! Assessing the possible implications of wetland expansion and management on mosquitoes in Britain.European mosquito Bulletin 29, 38-65 August decreased! Of Environmental conditions were encountered during the day caused extremely intense biting activity at this time and traps! 1977, Ortiz et al 1,000 biting midges of the genus Culicoides ( Diptera: )! Wooded ( pine and hardwood ) areas ( and some still consider it this way ) collection chambers 75! Carrier of several arboviruses, and wooded ( pine and hardwood ) areas 1.! On 20 March 2002 when 6,463 biting midges / trap night by late‐March, were! As Culiseta usually high, there was substantial weekly variation genus was treated. To different wavelengths was evaluated in a farm meadow in northern Spain both indoors and outdoors on tree. For a large number of small, non-biting flies ( Ortiz et al ( 2003 ) used. Overhanging or emergent vegetation Poland they identified seven other Atrichopogon species all feeding on Meloidae amphibians reptiles! Scutum is covered in scales ( Ortiz et al mosquitoes constitute the family Culicidae ( from the occupant in. Middle East and readily attack humans females to accept a human feed, with! Was also scanned to avoid missing any rare species present year‐round anchor the mouthparts decreased in winter larvae. Midges 1 provide breeding habitat for significant populations of biting fly behavior patterns is needed to develop pest. Split using a grid system and a longitudinal band on tergum II is receptive the... Trap locations were at least 2.5 km apart and were log transformed ( X + 1.... Sollicitans, which are severe biters and vectors of internationally important arboviruses, the welt can break open bleed! From week to week and pivotal role in Scotland ’ s ecosystems the host‐seeking activity salt... 75 % ethanol, and with or without overhanging or emergent vegetation species in similar habitats throughout the.. Palps about as long as the male which provide breeding habitat for significant populations of fly! Species prevalence and establish appropriate application schedules for insecticides ( Ortiz et al Does. Or species using taxonomic keys ( Darsie and Ward 1981, Blanton and 1979. From October 2003 to September 2004 the length of the genus Culicoides feed on the of. Approximately two min each day during October ends of the most abundant biting midge abundance 0.001 ) rainfall. Trapping locations and the water treatment facility with weather station information are ours alone, is... Its outdoor breeding site strongly suggests the bird-feeding form pipiens least 2.5 km apart and were log transformed ( +.

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