Five months after this, on February 20th 1958, the Little Rock school board filed a lawsuit in the Arkansas district court requesting an immediate end to the desegregation process. The Court ruled that their interpretation is in fact the correct interpretation, therefore the states have to abide by it. Even if those states disagree, they have no authority to create legislation that goes against the federal law because they are bound to it. Available at: https://books.google.com/books/about/Little_Rock_on_Trial.html?id=rdiPAAAAMAAJ, American Constitutional Law: Sources of Power and Restraint, Volume I. , Suzanne Jeans Publisher, 2012. This addition set up huge limits to the effects of the desegregation ruling by allowing white students to purposefully congregate in one school over the other. Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas. Start studying Cooper v. Aaron. COOPER V. AARON. By ruling of the Supreme Court, it was now deemed unconstitutional to have segregation in public schools as it violated African American’s 14. amendment rights to equal protection. 462 2 Under directive to district courts to require prompt and reasonable start toward desegregation of public schools and to take such action as was necessary to bring about end of Although it was approved by the District Courts, the respondents brought the case to the Court of Appeals in order to reverse the decision. Not only did it infringe on the people’s 14th amendment rights to equal protection, the state’s willingness to defy the ruling of the Supreme Court was in direct opposition of the judicial supremacy ruling of Marbury v Madison. Is the Little Rock ISD bound by court orders mandating desegregation? This documentary explores the Supreme Court cases Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) and Cooper v. Aaron (1958) that defined our understanding of the role of the judiciary. The School Board’s plan was to begin desegregating the high school levels first and then the lower level schools second. decision where segregation of schools was deemed unconstitutional. Although many members of the white community accepted the Blossom Plan, the Little Rock branch of the NAACP was not satisfied and tried multiple times to renegotiate. Statement of the Facts: In 1954, a unanimous U.S. Supreme Court decided the famous Brown v. Board of Education decision, which held that racial segregation in public schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. “Cooper v. Aaron and Judicial Authority: Lessons From Little Rock”, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/evan-bernick/cooper-v-aaron-and-judici_b_8233796.html, https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/358/1/case.html. The day before the first day of desegregation at Central High School, the governor of Arkansas believed it was necessary to send out the National Guard to the school, in order to prevent any colored students from getting inside. Blog. This case was seen as being a great eye-opener for many states thinking about challenging the plans of desegregation. Cooper v. Aaron Case Brief. The Justices begin the opinion by stating, “As this case reaches us, it raises questions of the highest importance to the maintenance of our federal system of government. went from a case that established judicial review to a case that granted judicial supremacy to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court was unanimous in the decision that their interpretation of the US Constitution is the “law of the land” and should be followed the way that they interpret it. 2d 5 (1958) Synopsis of Rule of Law. Dec. 15, 2020. Cooper v. Aaron: Summary, Decision & Importance Next Lesson. 1954 the Supreme Court declared it’s historic, unanimous decision in the, case that had polarized the nation. Facts. The Brown v. The command of the Fourteenth Amendment is that no “State” shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws” (Justia.com, 2016). In Cooper v. Aaron, 358 U.S. 1 (1958), the Supreme Court of the United States rejected interposition explicitly. After failing to do so they filed a lawsuit on February 8th 1956 and enrolled nine students of excellent academic standing (later dubbed the Little Rock Nine) in Little Rock Central High School. In Arkansas, the Little Rock School Board initially agreed to accept the Supreme Court’s decision and planned to start desegregating schools by the fall of 1957. Governor Orval Faubus had deployed the National Guard in order to aid the protestors in their efforts to physically restrict the black students from entering the school. The Justices state clearly that “the controlling legal principles are plain. United States Supreme Court. The District Court then filed a preliminary injunction on September 20, 1957,ordering the Governor and the National Guard to discontinue preventing the students from entering the school and interfering with the plan of desegregation. How to increase brand awareness through consistency; Dec. 11, 2020. Furthermore, states must work to enforce these decisions even if the they do not agree with them. It also allowed for students to transfer to schools outside of their assigned school zone. 358 U. S. 5, applies not only to this case but also to No. While the Little Rock School Board planned to carry out the intended plan of desegregation, they were continuously challenged by the governor and state officials. all states are bound by the rulings made by the Supreme Court as they are the supreme law of the land. With references to. The main reason being that the Supreme Court’s interpretation of the Constitution is in fact the “law of the land”. On May 17th 1954 the Supreme Court declared it’s historic, unanimous decision in the Brown v Board of Education case that had polarized the nation. The Court of Appeals did not act on the petition for a stay, but, on August 18, 1958, after convening in special session on August 4 and hearing the appeal, reversed the District Court decision. The governor continued to deny the students access into Central High School for three weeks. The Court ruled that their interpretation is in fact the correct interpretation, therefore the states have to abide by it. 1957, as the Little Rock Nine were attempting to enter Little Rock Central High School for the first time as students, they were met by the forceful presence of the Arkansas National Guard as well as many segregationist protesters. The Supreme Court's Brown decision of 1954, holding that racially segregated public schools were inherently unequal and therefore violated the Fourteenth Amendment's equal protection clause, precipitated the Little Rock School Board's efforts to comply. Cooper v. Aaron, 358 U.S. 1 (1958) Opinion announced September 29, 1958. President Eisenhower had already intervened and sent A state governor wishes to have the state legislature make it legal to segregate children in school based on his or her race. - Description: U.S. Reports Volume 358; August Special Term, 1958; Cooper et al., Members of the Board of Directors of the Little Rock, Arkansas, Independent School District, et al. Cooper v. Aaron; Cooper v. Aaron (1958) The Warren Court Argued: 09/11/1958 Decided: 09/12/1958 Vote: Unanimous Majority: Constitutional Provisions: The Supremacy Clause: Art. In a 1955 follow-up decision (Brown v. The decision of the Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas to dispatch units of the Arkansas National Guard to the school grounds in order to block efforts of desegregation. Students being escorted into Little Rock Central High. He believed that respect for the authority of the Supreme Court was vital, “our kind of society cannot endure if the controlling authority of the Law as derived from the Constitution is not to be the tribunal specially charged with the duty of ascertaining and declaring what is “the supreme Law of the Land.”” Justice Frankfurter was appalled by the actions of Governor Faubus and believed they went against the “spirit of our Nation” because “the power of the State was used not to sustain law, but as an instrument for thwarting law.”  His justification for their ruling was based less on the 14th amendment and more on the duty- and the sanctity of that duty- of state governments to uphold the law and abide by the rulings of the Supreme Court. 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