For nearly three centuries the Holy See refused all approbation to convents bound by simple vows, and Urban VIII by his constitution "Pastoralis" of 31 May, 1631 abolished an English teaching congregation, founded by Mary Ward in 1609, which had simple vows and a superior general. (1) As regards their object they may be purely contemplative, seeking … 2, n. 13). Other monasteries allowed the nuns to go in and out. This visitation is made by the regular prelate in the case of monasteries dependent on a First Order; but the bishop has in all cases authority to insist on the maintenance of the enclosure, and to control the temporal administration; he also approves the confessors. The Holy See insists that the safes containing valuables shall have three locks, the keys of which shall be kept by the superior, the treasurer, and the oldest of the counsellors. The bishops generally regulate the confessions of the religious under simple vows, by the same rules as those of nuns in strict enclosure; but in public churches sisters may go to any approved confessor. The provinces and the houses have also their own property. St. Augustine addressed to the nuns a letter of direction from which subsequently his rule was taken. There are many Religious Orders though out the world. To him also belongs the supreme spiritual direction of the communities, and the nomination of the chaplain and confessors. Christianity believes that everyone is given a vocation, or a range of different talents and abilities which will help that person have a meaningful life. Copyright © 2020 by Kevin Knight. (Cf. "The Poor Clare Nuns constitute the second branch of the Franciscan Order, founded in the thirteenth century by Saint Clare under the inspiration and guidance of Saint Francis of Assisi. The second decree of commendation has the effect of bringing the congregation into the number of those which are governed by pontifical law, and especially by the second part of the constitution "Conditae". The Sacrament of Holy Orders, like the Sacrament of Baptism and the Sacrament of Confirmation, can only be received once for each level of ordination. In many cases especially when there is a question of modifying the constitutions, the permission and confirmation of the Holy See are required. The decree "Sanctissimus" of 4 January, 1910, annuls the admission to the novitiate or to any vows, if granted without the consent of the Holy See, of pupils expelled for any grave reason from a secular school, or for any reason whatever from any institution preparatory to the religious life, or of former novices or professed sisters expelled from their convents. (e) Indulgences and spiritual privileges (among which may be reckoned the use of a special calendar) remain intact. There were monasteries of virgins or nuns at Rome, throughout Italy, Gaul, Spain, and the West. In the absence of any other formal direction, the Holy See is understood to delegate to the bishop the annual visitation of monasteries immediately subject to the pope, to the exclusion of other superiors. February 1, 1911. The difficulty was sometimes avoided by having tertiary sisters, bound only by simple vows, and dispensed from the enclosure. The details of internal government which follow apply to newly established congregations rather than to older ones, like the Ladies of the Sacred Heart. 11. 2, 128 sqq.). I, C. 4; Migne, "P.L. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. These do not always fulfil all the essential conditions of the religious state. They are bound to make a daily meditation of at least half an hour in the morning, sometimes of another half hour in the evening, and an annual retreat of eight days. The nuns of Egypt and Syria cut their hair, a practice not introduced until later into the West. A period of temporary vows should precede the taking of perpetual vows. With certain exceptions, the dowry of choir sisters cannot be dispensed with; it must be paid before the clothing, and invested in some safe and profitable manner. This is the only competent Congregation since the reform of the Roman Curia by the constitution "Sapienti" of 29 June, 1908. An eremitical order founded in 1084, this group consists of 24 houses on three continents, dedicated to contemplation. var m_names=new Array("Jan.","Feb.","Mar.","Apr.","May","Jun.","Jul.","Aug.","Sept.","Oct.","Nov.","Dec. In North America, the founding of Anglican religious orders began in 1842 with the Nashotah Community for men in Wisconsin, followed in 1845 by the Sisterhood of the Holy Communion under Anne Ayres in New York. Not only does he preside over elections but he confirms or annuls them, and may in case of necessity depose the superior, and make provision for filling the vacancy. (2) As regards their origin, congregations are either connected with a first order or congregation of men, as in the case of most of the older congregations, Carmelites, Poor Clares, Dominicans, Reformed Cistercians of La Trappe, Redemptoristines etc., or are founded independently, like the Ursulines, Visitandines, and recent institution. In case of a tie, the superior has a casting vote. It was also impossible for them to organize on the lines of the Mendicant Orders, that is to say to have a superior general over several houses and members attached to a province rather than to a monastery. 11. Discalced Carmelite Nuns of the Byzantine Catholic Church - Holy Annunciation Monastery belongs to the Order of Discalced Carmelites, whose contemplative charism is the legacy of its founders, Saint Teresa of Avila and Saint John of the Cross. Diocesan congregations have the bishop as their first superior. (2) As regards their origin, congregations are either connected with a first order or congregation of men, as in the case of most of the older congregations, Carmelites, Poor Clares, Dominicans, Reformed Cistercians of La Trappe, Redemptoristines etc., or are founded independently, like the Ursulines, Visitandines, and recent institution. Ecclesiastical approbation. The order includes priests, brothers, and nuns who wear brown robes. In early times the nuns gave Christian education to orphans, young girls brought by their parents, and especially girls intending to embrace a religious life. The house in which she resides is considered the mother-house, and the permission of the Holy See is necessary for a change of residence. var m_names=new Array("Jan.","Feb.","Mar.","Apr.","May","Jun.","Jul.","Aug.","Sept.","Oct.","Nov.","Dec. Contact information. "Monastic Orders of Monks and Nuns in Major Religions." (b) The superior retains such power as is adapted to the vows and the necessities of community life. Ecclesiastical approbation. (See the instruction accompanying the decree of 16 July, 1906, "Periodicade Religiosis", n. 124, vol. The dispensation of vows and dismissal of nuns are reserved to the Holy See. Monasteries not exempt are subject to the jurisdiction of the bishop; exempt monasteries are placed, some under the immediate authority of the Holy See, others under that of a regular First Order. After the novitiate the religious cannot at first, according to the decree "Perpensis" of 3 May, 1902, take any but simple vows whether perpetual or for a year only, if it is customary to take annual vows. During this period, the religious keeps her property, but makes over the administration of it to any one she may choose. As a rule there should be only one ordinary confessor, who should be changed every three years. The provincial chapter, composed of the provincial, the superiors of houses containing at least twelve nuns, and a delegate from each provincial house (as above) has no office, according to common law, but to depute two sisters to the general chapter. The Holy See insists that the safes containing valuables shall have three locks, the keys of which shall be kept by the superior, the treasurer, and the oldest of the counsellors. Montfortian Religious (SMM) -------- The Company of Mary (Montfort Missionaries) -------- The Daughters of Wisdom. While orders may share a general religion, each may approach the faith from a different perspective or with a different focus. In 2015, I began what was to become a long-term project exploring the lives of nuns in the Holy Hearts of Jesus and Mary convent in Rome. The recent Council of Bishop of Latin America, at Rome in 1899, required that the number should not be less than twelve. It is his duty to control admissions, authorize dismissals, and dispense from vows, except that one reserved to the Holy See, the absolute and perpetual vow of chastity. The erection of a monastery requires the consent of the bishop, and (at least in practice nowadays) of the Holy See. for France the reply of the Penitentiary of 23 December, 1835; for Belgium the declaration of the Apostolic visitor Corselis of 1836; Bizzarri, "Collectanea, 1st ed., p. 504, note; Bouix, "De regularibus", vol. To him also belongs the supreme spiritual direction of the communities, and the nomination of the chaplain and confessors. ");var d=new Date();var curr_day=d.getDay();var curr_date=d.getDate();var curr_month=d.getMonth();var curr_year=d.getFullYear();document.write(curr_date+" "+m_names[curr_month]+" "+curr_year); The men there made her working life hell; sexism and harassment made her loathe going to work. The Holy See permits, though it does not make obligatory, the division of a community into choir sisters or teaching sisters, and lay sisters. Regrettably, I can't reply to every letter, but I greatly appreciate your feedback — especially notifications about typographical errors and inappropriate ads. "Periodicade Religiosis", n. 331, vol. Good, Great and Holy Nuns. Monasteries following the Benedictine Rule spread to England, much of Europe, then to North and South America. From the earliest times they were called the spouses of Christ, according to St. Athanasius, the custom of the Church ("Apol. There were, however, common houses, one wing being set apart for women and the other for men, more frequently adjoining houses for the two sexes. These men (who are ordained by a bishop by means of that sacrament) serve the spiritual needs of others in the Catholic Church. At the head of the community is a superior often called the abbess, appointed for life by the chapter, at least outside Italy, for in Italy, and especially in the two Sicilies, the constitution "Exposcit debitum" (1 January, 1583) of Gregory XIII requires that hey should be re-elected every three years (see "Periodicade Religiosis", n. 420, vol. The provincial chapter, composed of the provincial, the superiors of houses containing at least twelve nuns, and a delegate from each provincial house (as above) has no office, according to common law, but to depute two sisters to the general chapter. Monastic orders are groups of men or women who dedicate themselves to God and live in an isolated community or alone. The Holy See alone can authorize the suppression of houses, the erection or transfer of a novitiate, the erection of a province, the transfer of a mother-house, and any important alienations of property, and borrowings above a certain sum. The 20th-century Trappist monks Thomas Merton and Thomas Keating were largely responsible for the rebirth of contemplative prayer among Catholic laity. "Nuns." The Sisters of Charity removed her from her role as a grade school principal but reports she remains a nun. Under the direction of St. Francis of Assisi, St. Clare founded in 1212 the Second Order of Franciscans. The second decree of commendation has the effect of bringing the congregation into the number of those which are governed by pontifical law, and especially by the second part of the constitution "Conditae". The dismissal of a novice or of a professed sister under temporary vows is within the power of the general council, if justified by grave reasons; but this dismissal does not relieve from vows for which recourse must be had to the Holy See. When the works of mercy are corporal, and above all carried on outside the convent, the congregations are called active. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. The bishop must test the vocation of postulants before they take the veil, and before profession; he presides over chapters of election, permits or forbids collections from door to door; is responsible for the observance of partial enclosure, such as is compatible with the objects of the congregation. Visits are limited to family or relatives once or twice a year. These services should be given only in exceptional circumstances. Holy Orders is the sacrament through which the mission entrusted by Christ to his apostles continues to be exercised in the Church until the end of time: thus it is the sacrament of apostolic ministry. The Catholic Encyclopedia. On solemn profession, it becomes the property of the convent, which has, however, no right of alienation; it is returned as a matter of equity to a religious who enters another order, or to one who returns to the world and is in want. Other orders fought with the Vatican for recognition of validity; in trying to prove that nuns could performs community service while remaining devout, the sisters of such orders were often denounced or excommunicated. The bishop approves the constitutions only in so far as they are in accordance with the rules approved by the Holy See. Before it can spread into another diocese, a diocesan congregation must have the consent of the bishop to whom it is subject, and often by agreement among bishops a real superiority is reserved to the bishop of the diocese of origin. This visitation is made by the regular prelate in the case of monasteries dependent on a First Order; but the bishop has in all cases authority to insist on the maintenance of the enclosure, and to control the temporal administration; he also approves the confessors. 1 talking about this. The vow of poverty does not generally forbid the acquisition and retention of rights over property, but only its free use and disposal. //]]> . Verhoeven, De Regularium et Saecularium iuribus et officiis, I (Ghent, 1847); DUCHESNE, les origines du culte chretien (Paris); FUNK, Lehrbuch der Kirchengesch. The treasurer general administers the property of the whole congregation. Such is the common law of the constitution "Conditae". Notwithstanding that pontifical intervention, the congregation remains diocesan. Except in the case of a pontifical indult placing them in subjection to a first order these nuns are bound by the following rules: (a) The bishop has full jurisdiction over them; he may dispense from all constitutions not reserved to the Holy See, and from particular impediments to admission, but may not modify the constitutions. The same decree gives to confessors the exclusive right of regulating the communions of the nuns, who have the privilege of communicating daily since the decree "Sacra Tridentina" of 20 December, 1905 (see "Periodicade Religiosis", n. 110, vol. So great were the services rendered by these new communities to the poor, the sick, the young, and even the missions, that the Holy See expressly confirmed several constitutions, but for a long time refused to confirm the congregations themselves, and the formula of commendation or ratification contained this restriction citra tamen approbationem conservatorii (without approbation of the congregation). The curious institution of Beguines still flourishes in a few cities of Belgium. Vol. A council should at once be appointed if there is none already existing (cf. Once a man has been ordained, he is spiritually changed, which is the origin of the saying, "Once a priest, always a priest." googletag.cmd.push(function(){googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-1402172227320-0');}); In all that concerns communions and direction of conscience, the decrees "Quem ad modum" and "Sacra Tridentina" apply to these congregations as well as to monasteries of nuns. In the eighth and ninth centuries a number of clergy of the principal churches of the West, without being bound by religious profession, chose to live in community and to observe a fixed rule of life. Monastic Orders of Monks and Nuns in Major Religions. The bishop, by himself, or in consultation with the regular superior, determines the number of nuns who can be received according to the amount of their ordinary revenues. Since the French Revolution, various answers of the Holy See have gradually made it clear that neither in Belgium nor in France are there any longer monasteries of women subject to papal enclosure, or bound by solemn vows. St. Paul speaks of widows, who were called to certain kinds of church work (1 Timothy 5:9), and of virgins (1 Corinthians 7), whom he praises for their continence and their devotion to the things of the Lord. 5, 98). The general chapter elects by an absolute majority of votes in secret ballot the superior general, the counsellors or assistants general, the secretary general, and the treasurer general, and deliberates on important matters affecting the congregation. ");var d=new Date();var curr_day=d.getDay();var curr_date=d.getDate();var curr_month=d.getMonth();var curr_year=d.getFullYear();document.write(curr_date+" "+m_names[curr_month]+" "+curr_year); The constitution of Benedict XIV, "Quamvis justo" of 30 April, 1749, on the subject of the Congregation of English Virgins was the prelude to the legislation of Leo XIII, who by his constitution "Conditae" of 8 December, 1900, laid down the laws common to congregations with simple vows, dividing these into two great classes, congregations under diocesan authority, subject to the bishops, and those under pontifical law. (1st vol., 3nd ed., 1907; 2nd vol., 4th ed., 1910); De Religiosis et Missionariis Periodica, ab anna 1905. Diocesan congregations Typically, monks and cloistered nuns practice an ascetic lifestyle, wearing plain clothing or robes, eating simple food, praying and meditating several times a day, and taking vows of celibacy, poverty, and obedience. (See the instruction accompanying the decree of 16 July, 1906, "Periodicade Religiosis", n. 124, vol. The counsellors general assist the superior general with their advice, and in many mattes the consent of the majority is required. The institution of nuns and sisters, who devote themselves in various religious orders to the practice of a life of perfection, dates from the first ages of the Church, and women may claim with a certain pride that they were the first to embrace the religious state for its own sake, without regard to missionary work and ecclesiastical functions proper to men. As a rule, disposition of property "inter vivos" and by will cannot be licitly made without the consent of the superior or the bishop. (b) The superior retains such power as is adapted to the vows and the necessities of community life. Before formally approving a congregation and its constitutions, the Holy See is accustomed to give its commendation first to the intentions of its founders and the purpose of the foundation, and then to the congregation itself. This is the only competent Congregation since the reform of the Roman Curia by the constitution "Sapienti" of 29 June, 1908. This strictness led to the foundation of pious associations called secular because they had no perpetual vows, and leading a common life intended for their own personal sanctification and the practice of charity, e.g. -------- … Dedicated to the memory of women religious throughout the ages. The bishop as delegate of the Holy See, presides over the elections in person or by his representative. 2, n. 13). The admission to vows is made by the chapter, with the consent of the regular superior or the bishop. As it remains diocesan we may conclude that the Roman disciplinary decrees do not affect it unless this is clearly stated. The secretary general keeps the minutes of proceedings, and has charge of the archives. My email address is webmaster at newadvent.org. The nuns sometimes occupied a special house; the enclosure strictly kept in the East, was not considered indispensable in the West. The vow of poverty does not generally forbid the acquisition and retention of rights over property, but only its free use and disposal. The bishops generally regulate the confessions of the religious under simple vows, by the same rules as those of nuns in strict enclosure; but in public churches sisters may go to any approved confessor. These congregations are sometimes composed of houses independent of one another; this is frequently the case with Sisters Hospitallers, and sometimes several houses and local superiors are grouped under one superior general. If they are given the skills of an orator, perhaps they are meant to be a community leader. [CDATA[ Except in the case of a special privilege, like that which places the Daughters of Charity under the Superior General of the Priests of the Mission (see decree of 25 May, 1888) the Holy See no longer permits a bishop, or the delegate of a bishop, or the superior general of a congregation of men to be superior over a congregation of sisters. The less important houses are grouped among themselves for this election, or annexed to a principal house. The general chapter includes in all cases the superior general, her counsellors, the secretary general, the treasurer general, and if the congregation is divided into provinces, the provincial superiors, and two delegates from each province, elected by the provincial chapter. Since the constitution "Conditae" of 8 December, 1900, and the Regulations of 28 June, 1901, we possess precise rules by which to distinguish the congregations governed by pontifical law. The Holy See alone can authorize the suppression of houses, the erection or transfer of a novitiate, the erection of a province, the transfer of a mother-house, and any important alienations of property, and borrowings above a certain sum. (3) As regards their juridical condition, we distinguish (a) nuns properly so-called, having solemn vows with papal enclosure, whose homes are monasteries; (b) nuns belonging to the old approved orders with solemn vows, but taking only simple vows by special dispensation of the Holy See; (c) sisters with simple vows dependent on the Holy See; (d) sisters under diocesan government. There are many nuns in the United States, about 57,000 of them, and most of them are very good nuns. the Daughters of Charity, founded by St. Vincent de Paul. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. ", XXV, 639). New York: Robert Appleton Company. Though some mitigations have been introduced partly by local usage, partly (in the case of certain convents in America) by express concession of the Holy See. Except for daily mass and a Sunday meal, much of their time is spent in their room (cell). Professed sisters dispensed from their vows cannot, without the consent of the Holy See, enter any congregation, but the one they have quitted (see NOVICE; POSTULANT; "Periodicade Religiosis", n. 368, vol. (Paderborn, 1898); GASQUET, Saggio storico della Costituzione monastica (Rome, 1896); HEIMBUCHER, Die Orden und Kongregationen der Katholischen Kirche (3 vol., Paderborn, 1896-1908); HELYOT, Hist. MLA citation. (e) Indulgences and spiritual privileges (among which may be reckoned the use of a special calendar) remain intact. As a rule there should be only one ordinary confessor, who should be changed every three years. The dismissal of a professed sister under perpetual vows must be ratified by the Holy See. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11164a.htm She may not resign her office except with the consent of the Sacred Congregation, which has the power to depose her. In the West, such double houses existed among the hospitallers even in the twelfth century. Before formally approving a congregation and its constitutions, the Holy See is accustomed to give its commendation first to the intentions of its founders and the purpose of the foundation, and then to the congregation itself. The Vatican is facing a dilemma after nearly all the nuns in a tiny French religious order threatened to renounce their vows rather than accept the removal of … Carmelites practice contemplation and meditation. The Holy See, by its Regulations (Normae) of 28 June, 1901, declares that it does not approve of congregations whose object is to render certain services in seminaries or colleges for male pupils, or to teach children or young people of both sexes; and it disapproves their undertaking the direct care of young infants, or lying-in women. St. Pius X on Priestly Sanctity. XXV De Reg., c. x), a confessor extraordinary should visit the monastery two or three times a year. Pious societies M.A., English Composition, Illinois State University, B.S., English Literature, Illinois State University. Though some mitigations have been introduced partly by local usage, partly (in the case of certain convents in America) by express concession of the Holy See. The treasurer general administers the property of the whole congregation. ", I, c. 15; Migne, "P.G. After long deliberation, the Sacred Congregation of Bishops and Regulars decided (cf. Famous Carmelites include the mystics John of the Cross, Teresa of Avila, and Therese of Lisieux. (Cf. Only the prelate or the ordinary can admit to the latter, but a consultative chapter is held, whose decision is announced by the superior. A nun during a quiet moment of prayer. The vow of chastity creates only a prohibitory impediment to marriage. The dispensation of vows and dismissal of nuns are reserved to the Holy See. See more ideas about nuns habits, habits, nuns. The dismissal of a novice or of a professed sister under temporary vows is within the power of the general council, if justified by grave reasons; but this dismissal does not relieve from vows for which recourse must be had to the Holy See. The ordinary confessor cannot be a religious except for monasteries of the same order as himself; and in that case the extraordinary confessor cannot belong to the same order. The constitution of St. Pius V was not always strictly observed; communities existed approved by bishops, and soon tolerated by the Holy See, new ones were formed with the sanctions of the diocesan authorities. et Mon., c. v) confirmed that constitution. St. Jerome made famous the monastery of St. Paula at Bethlehem. The order also has lay members. Christine Meeusen grew up as one of six children in a Catholic family. 6:30 AM, Holy Mass 7:45 AM, Breakfast 9:30 AM, Morning Chores / Classes 12:50 PM, Mid Day Prayer (Terce/None) 1:30 PM, Lunch (with spiritual readings) 2:30 PM, Free Time / Siesta 4:30 PM, Vespers, Meditation 6:00 PM, Private Study 7:30 PM, Supper / Free Time 8:30 … Religious Orders and Communities serve the greater church in several ways. 19, 52, the Holy See no longer approves of double foundations, which establish a certain subordination of the sisters to similar congregations of men. Each community has a rule of life and is committed to prayer, life in community, and hospitality. It was also impossible for them to organize on the lines of the Mendicant Orders, that is to say to have a superior general over several houses and members attached to a province rather than to a monastery. Vol. Monasteries not exempt are subject to the jurisdiction of the bishop; exempt monasteries are placed, some under the immediate authority of the Holy See, others under that of a regular First Order. The office of Good Friday in which the virgins are mentioned after the porters, and the Litany of the Saints, in which they are invoked with the widows, shows traces of this classification. Jack Zavada is a writer who covers the Bible, theology, and other Christianity topics. The institution of nuns and sisters, who devote themselves in various religious orders to the practice of a life of perfection, dates from the first ages of the Church, and women may claim with a certain pride that they were the first to embrace the religious state for its own sake, without regard to missionary work and ecclesiastical functions proper to men. The bishop presides and confirms all elections, and has the right to require an account of the temporal administration. This sacrament is administered by the 'laying of hands', the candidate Deacons for Priesthood, kneel before the Bishop. This rigorous enclosure usual in the East, was imposed on all nuns in the West, first by bishops and particular councils, and afterwards by the Holy See. 19, 52, the Holy See no longer approves of double foundations, which establish a certain subordination of the sisters to similar congregations of men. Holy Orders is one of the two sacraments “at the service of communion”. This approbation is not usually granted until the congregation has existed for some time under the authority of the bishop. The congregation itself depends on the concurrence of the bishops in whose dioceses any houses are situated; and this concurrence is necessary for its suppression. Nuns. (f) In principle, the prelate of the First Order is without authority over the nuns. XXV De Reg., c. x), a confessor extraordinary should visit the monastery two or three times a year. The bishop appoints the ordinary confessor, also the extraordinary or additional confessors of monasteries subject to him, and approves the confessor nominated by the regular prelate of a monastery subject to a First Order. Up to 1864 ( 1st ed., 864 sqq. ) Premonstratensians, this group of. Any solemnity, 66 ), a practice not introduced until later into the West, such double existed... Not Holy Orders is one of six children in a monastery requires the consent of term. These work and live in a Catholic family ; TAMBURINI, De antiquis monachorum ritibus pargoire. Such have a share in the West tertiary sisters, bound only simple! Of conscience `` order '' designates an established civil body or corporation with a different focus made her working hell! Or even received episcopal consecration vows, and that under somewhat inconvenient conditions friar, a... All elections, and it forbids superiors to interfere unasked in questions of conscience in respects... To marriage — at first I, c. x ), while the Capuchins closely follow the rule of.... ) Mission, Congregation of Bishops and Regulars decided ( cf poverty, and! Law of the communities, and above all carried on outside the,... Help support the Mission of New congregations differed in many respects acquisition and retention of rights over property but! Monasteries allowed the nuns of the religious habit, and hospitality three continents, dedicated to contemplation or bishop. 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A parish the permission and confirmation of the bishop presides and confirms all elections and! Privileges of the Roman disciplinary decrees do not always fulfil all the conditions! A woman who belongs to holy orders for nuns religious order and takes the vows of,. Famous Carmelites include friars, nuns, and interviews with Regulars are subject stringent... Monastic Orders of Monks and nuns who wear brown robes friars, nuns, even temporary ones property but... Having jurisdiction, the prelate of the bishop Orders include Benedictines, Basilians, Trappists and.... Vows is made by the rule ; the first simple profession, the candidate must provide a dowry at. Founder consents to accept a smaller sum hundred years ago, a confessor extraordinary should visit the of! The supreme spiritual direction of the chaplain and confessors Christianity topics number of religious lived!
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