Health authorities have noticed the danger that lingers upon the Republic, and to prevent its propagation, the Health Department has ordered the following measures. (2005) suggests that the epidemic originated in New York due to evidence of a pre-pandemic wave of the virus in that city).1. (2009) published a lower estimate of 1–2 million.16, The Russian Flu pandemic of 1977-78 was caused by the same H1N1 virus that caused the Spanish flu. Michaelis, M., Doerr, H.W. In the same cablegram, he said there is evidence of the presence of cholera on the island. Nurses at work combating the influenza epidemic at the Red Cross in Seattle, 1918. Our World in Data presents the data and research to make progress against the world’s largest problems. Related Pages. Online here. The Spanish Flu is losing groundWednesday, October 16, 1918, * Only in San Pedro, Coahuila the disease is increasing with up to 100 daily deaths Subsequent outbreaks gradually became less catastrophic. Almost exactly 100 years ago, one-third of the world's population found itself infected in a deadly viral pandemic. * Medications will be brought from the United States. What also stands out is how abrupt and damning negative health events can be. “Reassessing the Global Mortality Burden of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic”. This paper suggests that it was of the order of 50 million. Online here. Gatherer D. (2009). 10 Misconceptions About the 1918 ‘Spanish Flu’ In the pandemic of 1918, between 50 and 100 million people are thought to have died, … Morens et al (2008) found that during the Spanish flu “the majority of deaths … likely resulted directly from secondary bacterial pneumonia caused by common upper respiratory–tract … This long-term rise of life expectancy at all ages is the focus of this accompanying text here. But it is true that the world today is much better connected. License: All of Our World in Data is completely open access and all work is licensed under the Creative Commons BY license. (2013) – Age-Specific Mortality During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Unravelling the Mystery of High Young Adult Mortality.PLoS One. When comparing COVID-19 with the Spanish flu, there are a number of important differences that should be considered: They are not the same disease and the virus causing these diseases are very different. [If you want to understand this in more detail you find our discussion of it here. Proc. The Spanish Flu pandemic weakensSaturday, August 12, 1918. Morens et al (2008) found that during the Spanish flu “the majority of deaths … likely resulted directly from secondary bacterial pneumonia caused by common upper respiratory–tract bacteria.”21. Smith F. B. Español. We use the CDC, NIH and individual state and county databases for verification and supplementation for USA data. Thinking there may be … Temples, schools, theaters, and other places were people can gather have been closed. The appearance of the “Spanish Flu” in our country has acquired alarming characteristics for it is present in several places as a strong pandemic. 8 55–73. (1 December 2018). However, it must be acknowledged that even this vast figure may be substantially lower than the real toll, perhaps as much as 100 percent understated.”. In this regard, the President of the High Council of Health, the doctor and General José María Rodríguez directed a letter to the manager of the Spanish Transatlantic Company, letting him know that the “Alfonso XII” ship will only be accepted in the port of Veracruz where it will be put in quarantine since the rest of the ports in the Gulf do not have the necessary conditions” (…). Since most people first heard about the flu from its attack on Spain, it was named the Spanish flu. The calculation is (17,400,000/1,832,196,157)*100=0.95. Published by 80,000 hours. This is in order to prevent the propagation of the terrible “Spanish flu” that is wreaking havoc in the region. Today the sharing of data, research, and news is certainly not perfect, but very different and much more open than in the past. Burnet F. M., Clark E. (1942) – Influenza: A Survey of the Last 50 Years in the Light of Modern Work on the Virus of Epidemic Influenza. (2009) published an estimate of 2–4 million.14, According to a WHO publication the “Hong Kong Flu” (1968-1969) killed between 1 and 4 million people.15, Michaelis et al. The light green line, for example, represents the life expectancy for children who had reached age 10. In places like Alaska, the Spanish flu exacted a terrible toll. It was patchy. Our World in Data is free and accessible for everyone. Why were older people so resilient to the 1918 pandemic? Experts agree the Spanish flu occurred in multiple waves and that the second wave was significantly more deadly than the others. Did you know the coronavirus outbreak is an international emergency? It is becoming apparent that there are differences in the death rates for different groups during the Coronavirus pandemic, and there is no clear explanation of why this is. (2018) concluded that earlier estimates have been too high. 8 55–73. The denser the population, the more havoc, and Mexico City is optimal for the development and propagation of the new pandemic. For the definitions of epidemic and pandemic see the CDC here. These differences suggest that one should be cautious in drawing lessons from the outbreak a century ago. Today planes can carry people and viruses to many corners of the world in a very short time. It shows that life expectancy increased at all ages, which means that the often-heard assertion that life expectancy ‘only’ increased because child mortality declined is not true. Help us do this work by making a donation. From the paper: “Further research has seen the consistent upward revision of the estimated global mortality of the pandemic, which a 1920s calculation put in the vicinity of 21.5 million. So has been declared by experts whose opinion was recently requested about the characteristics of the disease. 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According to information supplied by the Civil Registry, there were 11 cases of death registered with no other event worth mentioning. The new coronavirus that causes COVID-19 appears to be most lethal to the elderly, based on early evidence in China.20. Spanish Flu: the virus that changed the world; 10 facts about the Black Death; Why was Spanish Flu called Spanish flu? Study shows deaths in New York quadrupled in early months. In available historical reconstructions (like this one) this decline is not shown. Dr. José María Rodríguez, president of the High Council of Health told us yesterday that he has been receiving telegrams from Monterrey, Zacatecas, and Nuevo Laredo that report the “Spanish Flu” pandemic continues weakening for there are very few new cases. Further below I will briefly discuss similarities and differences with the Coronavirus (COVID-19) in 2019/20. While the life expectancy at birth and at young ages declined by more than ten years, the life expectancy of 60- and 70-year olds saw no change. It is highly probable a similar measure will be taken in the Coahuila and Pacific railways because the city of Saltillo wants to be isolated since it has not been invaded by the pandemic yet. 8 55–73. “As a prevention measure and to stop the so-called “Spanish Flu” from propagating to other places in the country, the Ministry has ordered the closure of the Laredo Border Customs Office in Tamaulipas while the risk of infection prevails; once it disappears and the conditions of the place are positive, the reopening of the traffic will be opened in the mentioned office.”. 187 (12): 2561–2567. 50,000,000 deaths / 1,832,196,157 people = 0.02729 And with a death count twice is high: 0.05458. A new pathogen can cause terrible devastation and lead to the death of millions. - The State government has ordered important measures to counteract the terrible “Spanish Flu” pandemic that is propagating in the State. David Arnold (2019) estimates … Some villages escaped, but in some others every single inhabitant died. As you will surely remember, we reported it was known that in Juchitepec, Tenango del Aire in the State of Mexico, there had been some “Spanish Flu” cases registered and so we investigated the result of the test performed by the Department. Spanish Flu: Death Rates By Country. (1995) – The Russian influenza in the United Kingdom, 1889-1894. The visualization here shows the available estimates from the different research publication discussed in the following. Current estimates for the annual number of deaths from influenza are around 400,000 deaths per year. Pandemic influenza preparedness and response – WHO guidance document. On Alaska also see here and on Samoa see here. The 1918 hit a world population of which a very large share was extremely poor – large shares of the population were undernourished, in most parts of the world the populations lived in very poor health, and overcrowding, poor sanitation and low hygiene standards were common. The development of the flu in the capitalTuesday, October 15, 1918. Smith F. B. Soc. Overall, the Spanish flu was present in England from June 1918 to April 1920 in three different waves, meaning it was in the country for just under two years. Health measures In the last 150 years the world has seen an unprecedented improvement in health. One of the deadliest pandemics in human history was the one that took place in 1918 when the “Spanish Flu” spread and had a toll of 50 million deaths all over the world. The Spanish flu reached its height in autumn 1918 but raged until 1920, ... France's wartime trenches, ridden with filth, disease, and death, were originally seen as the flu… Published online 2013 Aug 5. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069586. Following the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 1918, which came to be known as the Spanish Flu, the number of deaths due to influenza and pneumonia soared. This last visualization here shows the life expectancy in England and Wales by age. Two decades before the Spanish flu the Russian flu pandemic (1889-1894) is believed to have killed 1 million people.12, Estimates for the death toll of the “Asian Flu” (1957-1958) vary between 1.5 and 4 million. Patterson and Pyle (1991) wrote ‘we believe that approximately 30 million is the best estimate for the terrible demographic toll of the influenza pandemic of 1918’ and published a range from 24.7-39.3 million deaths. Period life expectancy, which is the precise name for this measure, only looks at the mortality pattern in one particular year and then captures this snapshot of population health as the average age of death of a hypothetical cohort of people for which that year’s mortality pattern would remain constant throughout their entire lifetimes. As of 25 October, over 13,000 cases had been confirmed in India, with 444 deaths, starting with a 13-year-old girl's death in … (2002) – Updating the accounts: global mortality of the 1918-1920 “Spanish” influenza pandemic. "Fortunately, the government is already in charge of ordering the measures it considers efficient to limit the blow, whose effects we hope not to be as important as some assert. The Spanish flu, unusually for an influenza, was less lethal for older people, perhaps because a similar 1830s flu outbreak granted older people still alive in … Online here. 45 174–178. More recently, between 151,700 and 575,400 people died from the swine flu or … Epidemiological evidence of an early wave of the 1918 influenza pandemic in New York City. This is alarming because the population is between 10,000 and 12,000 persons. In J Glob Health. The number of deaths was estimated to be at least 50 million worldwide with about 675,000 occurring in the United States. Laredo’s Customs Office Opens Online here. The chief of the Health Department proposed to the President of the Republic to adopt the following measures that were approved: Dr. Ballina’s Opinion All visualizations, data, and code produced by Our World in Data are completely open access under the Creative Commons BY license. But the authors suggest that this could be an underestimation and that the true death toll was as high as 100 million.7, The more recent study by Spreeuwenberg et al. Paget et al (2019) suggest an “average of 389 000 (uncertainty range 294 000-518 000) respiratory deaths were associated with influenza globally each year”. Yesterday, we were given information by the Finance Ministry which we immediately published about the measures issued by the Customs General Direction to prevent the propagation of the pandemic that has started in northeast Mexico. P. Spreeuwenberg; et al. Novel swine-origin influenza A virus in humans: another pandemic knocking at the door. It was the Spanish flu. There is now a lot of variability in these estimates and while the academic discussions continue the range of estimates gives us an understanding of the severity of the event. And we say this because the so-called flu, which has had fatal results in Europe with victims year after year, is harmless in these regions where it is only a more or less intense cold. Yesterday, by orders of the Public Health Department, 40 persons infected by the flu were received in the General Hospital of this city. (1995) – The Russian influenza in the United Kingdom, 1889-1894. But it is false to attribute a specific number of deaths to each wave. The Finance Ministry said the following about the decision taken yesterday by the Customs General Direction: “Regarding the reports received from the Nuevo Laredo Border Customs Office Administrator in Tamaulipas, this Ministry has decided to reopen to the public the mentioned office.”, Health care in Mexico: disinformation, new tariffs, and contradictions. Railroad traffic between the cities of Torreón and Monterrey, who are connected by three railway lines, will be suspended today in the way called Hipólito, according to orders given by the general direction. As many as 17 million died in India, about 5% of the population. 198 962–970. One reason why this pandemic was so devastating was that young people accounted for a large share of the population. Online here. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. BMC Infect Dis 19, 117 (2019). Public resources were small and many countries had just spent large shares of their resources on the war. *Infested ships will only be allowed in Veracruz, where they will be put on strict quarantine. Online here. He said the ship “Alfonso XII” arrived with 1,200 migrants on board, out of which 23 died due to the terrible disease and 300 were infected. Acad. In Emerg Infect Dis. The pandemic at Havanna – Measures Against Infested Ships Natl. The visualization shows that in many countries life expectancy, which measures the average age of death, doubled from around 40 years or less to more than 80 years. To better understand this deadly virus, an expert group of researchers and virus hunters set out to search for the lost 1918 virus, sequence its genome, recreate the virus in a highly safe and regulated laboratory setting at CDC, and ultimately study its secrets to better prepare for future pandemics. The 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak in its historical context. After the director of the hospital knew about the situation, he ordered to have a pavilion ready for their arrival that will be exclusively destined for those affected with the mentioned disease and in which, as usual, there will be perfect antisepsis. Estimates as to how many infected people died vary greatly, but the flu is regardless considered to be one of the deadliest pandemicsin history. and Pyle, G.F. (1991) – The geography and mortality of the 1918 influenza pandemic. Additionally the populations in many parts of the world were weakened by a global war. Katherine says her father, who had lost his son - her brother - at the Battle of Ypres in 1917 - was inconsolable after his wife's death, demonstrating how the flu piled tragedy upon tragedy. The reason for this is that precise annual counts of the world population are not available for the past. See also Alyssa S. Parpia, Martial L. Ndeffo-Mbah, Natasha S. Wenzel, and Alison P. Galvani (2016) – Effects of Response to 2014–2015 Ebola Outbreak on Deaths from Malaria, HIV/AIDS, and Tuberculosis, West Africa. Our World In Data is a project of the Global Change Data Lab, a registered charity in England and Wales (Charity Number 1186433). doi: 10.3201/eid2203.150977 PMCID: PMC4766886 PMID: 26886846 Online here. ], This influenza outbreak wasn’t restricted to Spain and it didn’t even originate there (recent research by Olson et al. All inhabitants, even those with few elements, can collaborate in this task with a bit of goodwill and basic hygiene. As we’ve seen above, the Spanish flu in 1918 was especially dangerous to infants and younger people. (2020) – “Preparedness and Vulnerability of African Countries against Importations of COVID-19: A Modelling Study.” The Lancet (February 20, 2020). Med. Have you heard Mexico's HIV epidemic needs to stop? John Paget, Peter Spreeuwenberg, Vivek Charu Robert J Taylor, A Danielle Iuliano, Joseph Bresee, Lone Simonsen, Cecile Viboud,3 and for the Global Seasonal Influenza-associated Mortality Collaborator Network and GLaMOR Collaborating Teams (2019) – Global mortality associated with seasonal influenza epidemics: New burden estimates and predictors from the GLaMOR Project. For this reason the Spanish flu has been cited as a warning and as a motivation to prepare well for large pandemic outbreaks, which have been considered likely by many researchers.23. Dis. As a matter of fact, we had access to a message dated in Monterrey in which the governor Nicéforo Zambrano asserts that due to the measures implemented by his government, the epic has disappeared, according to opinions of local doctors. We’ve also seen above that during the Spanish flu many countries tried to suppress any information about the influenza outbreak. How large was the share who died in the pandemic? The virus that causes COVID-19 is a coronavirus, not an influenza virus that caused the Spanish flu and the other influenza pandemics listed above. With respect to the impact of the Spanish flu it is striking that the visualization shows that the pandemic had very little impact on older people. Roman Duda (2016) – Problem profile: Biorisk reduction. We have a page dedicated to the research and data on the Coronavirus outbreak. Morens D. M., Taubenberger J. K., Fauci A. S. (2008) – Predominant role of bacterial pneumonia as a cause of death in pandemic influenza: implications for pandemic influenza preparedness. Virol. But it was named as such because Spain was neutral in the First World War (1914-18), which meant it was free to report on the severity of the pandemic, while countries that were fighting tried to suppress reports on how the influenza impacted their population to maintain morale and not appear weakened in the eyes of the enemies. The 1918 flu, known as the Spanish flu after the country’s press were among the first to report on it, killed between 50 and 100 million people around the world. Zika: the consequences of the epidemic in Mexico, Copyright © Todos los derechos reservados | EL UNIVERSAL, Compañía Periodística Nacional. The “Spanish Flu” pandemic that was developing at an alarming pace in northeast Mexico has begun to decrease, according to reports obtained from authorized sources. American Journal of Epidemiology. Smith (1995) estimates that the Russian flu killed 132,000 in England, Wales, and Ireland. 2019 Dec; 9(2): 020421. With the objective of providing our readers with relevant statements about the “Spanish Flu” pandemic, here are the statements made by Dr. Francisco Ballina, director of the Spanish Hospital: “First. 2016 Mar; 22(3): 433–441. Patients die from asphyxiation. Published online 2019 Oct 22. doi: 10.7189/jogh.09.020421 PMCID: PMC6815659 PMID: 31673337 Online here. U.S.A. 102 11059–11063. Soc. 10.1086/591708. Spain was the first country struck by the flu that was not involved in World War I; thus, it was the first country not to censor their health reports. Spanish Flu was the most serious pandemic in history, with millions of deaths worldwide. How do these estimates compare with the size of the world population at the time? In Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 76(1), pp.105-115. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce these in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. Their own estimate is 17.4 million deaths.8. The Spanish flu infected around 500 million people, about one-third of the world's population. Also referred to as the Bombay Influenza or the Bombay Fever in India, the pandemic is believed to have killed up to 17 - 18 million people in the country, the most among all countries. Patterson, K.D. deaths per 100,000 persons in each age group, United States, for the interpandemic years 1911–1917 (dashed line) and the pandemic year 1918 (solid line)[29] The disease killed in every corner of the globe. This is how EL UNIVERSAL covered the presence of the Spanish Flu in Mexico: On Guard Against the Spanish FluOctober 101, 1918, *The Health Department adopts energetic measures to prevent the pandemic from expanding This means that in recent years the flu was responsible for the death of 0.0052% of the world population – one person out of 18,750.5 Even in comparison to the low estimate for the death count of the Spanish flu (17.4 million) this pandemic, more than a century ago, caused a death rate that was 182 -times higher than today’s baseline. The data produced by third parties and made available by Our World in Data is subject to the license terms from the original third-party authors.  according to Smith (1995) 132,000 in England, Wales, and Ireland alone. SALTILLO, Coah., October 9. Gagnon et al. To have a context for the severity of influenza pandemics it might be helpful to know the death count of a typical flu season. Olson D. R., Simonsen L., Edelson P. J., Morse S. S. (2005). Spanish Flu Victims (1918-1920) by Bellamy8897 | created - 19 Feb 2016 | updated - 9 months ago | Public People associated with the arts (film, theater, literature, etc.) During the Spanish flu from 1918 to 1919 around 50 million people were estimated to have died. The Russian flu pandemic was a devastating event in itself. As with Spanish flu, no-one was exempt from the virus: the Prime Minister of the UK Boris Johnson was hospitalised with Covid-19 in April 2020 and the President of the United States of America, President Trump, suffered similarly in October. , provided the source and authors are credited at 21.6 million these differences that... Shares of their resources on the difficult problem of reconstructing the global mortality at 21.6 million the share who in! And damning negative health events can be easily done. `` number of deaths each! Mar ; 22 ( 3 ): 433–441 for this is at odds with we... 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