or B.Sc. Electrification is vital to fight against... Week in Review: Tourist arrivals fall 75% in... Myanmar among five Asian countries needing... Nay Pyi Taw vows to take action against... 16 Myanmar migrants victims of fraud in... NLD expected to take all chief minister posts. But there are 150 universities and colleges that are divided into 14 divisions and states. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. For the poor and disadvantaged in remote areas who have no access to or cannot afford to go to public schools, monastic schools are often the only source of education, providing free tuition and textbooks. Figure 2. EDUCATION IN MYANMAR 1. Education in Burma is not only inaccessible to many people but also heightens existing ethnic tensions. The education of Myanmar first began during the time of ancient kings and had been regarded as important and significant. Its total length from north to south is about 1,275 miles (2,050 km), and its width at the widest part, across the centre of the country at about the latitude of the city of Mandalay, is approximately 580 miles (930 km) from east to west. With the opening of the new college, the Diploma in Education classes was discontinued. The central basin and lowlands, lying between the Rakhine Mountains and the Shan Plateau, are structurally connected with the folding of the western ranges. The English name of the city that served as the country’s capital from 1948 to 2006, Rangoon, also was dropped in 1989 in favour of the common Burmese name, Yangon. It is deeply entrenched and crosses the plateau in a series of deep gorges. 1 Basic Education System 1.1 The current basic education system in Myanmar comprises six years of primary (Grade 1 to Grade 6), three years of lower secondary (Grade 7 to Grade 9) and two years of upper secondary (Grade 10 and Grade 11) education. In Myanmar, where more than 80 per cent of the population lives in rural areas, monastic schools fill a significant gap in the education sector. The Shan Plateau is drained by the Salween River, which enters Myanmar from southern China and empties into the Gulf of Martaban southeast of the Sittang. General Information. Five years of primary education, beginning at age five, are compulsory; in some remote rural areas, however, formal schooling may not be available. Somewhat smaller is Inle Lake, stretching about 14 miles (22 km) from north to south and 7 miles (11 km) from east to west, on the Shan Plateau. In olden days there were Buddhist monasteries in every corner of the country including in towns, villages and most of these monasteries had schools attached. The quality of school teachers may be excellent, however aging materials sadly let them down. Inle Lake, near Taunggyi, Myanmar (Burma). Meeting demand The obvious challenge for policy-makers in Myanmar would appear to be around the scale and mix of investment in higher education. Their average elevation is about 6,000 feet (1,800 metres), although some peaks rise to 10,000 feet (3,000 metres) or higher. Structure of Education System in Myanmar Source: Panorama of Myanmar Higher Education (June, 2012) The credit system introduced in 2000-01 AY is being revised in tandem with new courses in order to facilitate Myanmar Students in transferring credits to foreign HEIs on student exchange programs. The Rakhine coastal plains are drained by short, rapid streams, which, after forming broad deltas, flow into the Bay of Bengal. The education system is based on the United Kingdom’s system, due to nearly a century of British presence in Myanmar. Like the mountains, Myanmar’s main rivers run from north to south. Occupying the eastern half of the country, it is deeply dissected, with an average elevation of about 3,000 feet (900 metres). Myanmar slopes from north to south, from an elevation of 19,296 feet (5,881 metres) at Mount Hkakabo (the country’s highest peak) in the extreme north to sea level at the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady) and Sittang (Sittoung) river deltas. Sule pagoda, in the centre of Yangon, Myanmar. Boat on the Irrawaddy River, Myanmar (Burma). Culture. Progress and Completion in Education Participation in Education. This chapter provides an overview of the historical development of educational provision in Myanmar. In olden days there were Buddhist monasteries in every corner of the country including in towns, villages and most of these monasteries had schools attached. Tertiary: Undergraduate Education - Degree Oriented: 3: 3-4 years : Tertiary: Graduate Education: 5: Master's or M.B.B.S. in education outputs. Particularly since the … The remote, western hills of Burma are home to a population of some 500,000 Chin people and their state is widely acknowledged to be the poorest part of the country. Nevertheless, this is a successful non-sate education regime which offers a model for dual-language schooling in a multi-ethnic country such as Burma - a prototype ‘federal’ education system. Student enrollment in university in 2014 was 550,000. In 1931, the Teachers’ Training College (TTC) was established as a constituent college of the college of the University of Yangon. The country as a whole can be divided into five physiographic regions—the northern mountains, the western ranges, the eastern plateau, the central basin and lowlands, and the coastal plains. Education System . To the south of these are the Rakhine Mountains (Arakan Mountains), which lie entirely within Myanmar and separate the coastal strip from the central basin. Author of. © Copyright 2021 The Myanmar Times. An intensive adult literacy campaign was initiated in 1983-84, which mobilized educated persons living in villages and urban neighborhoods to bring basic reading and writing skills to over 750,000 adults. Nay Pyi Taw was proclaimed the capital of Myanmar in 2006. The country is bordered by China to the north and northeast, Laos to the east, Thailand to the southeast, the Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal to the south and southwest, Bangladesh to the west, and India to the northwest. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Faculties in Medicine, Engineer, Education, Law, Arts, Science, Agriculture, Social Science and Forestry were established with their respective training courses before 1962. Low in nutrients and organic matter, they are improved by fertilizers. The western ranges traverse the entire western side of Myanmar, from the northern mountains to the southern tip of the Rakhine (Arakan) Peninsula, where they run under the sea and reappear as the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In an attempt to raise the national educational level, a special four-year plan was implemented beginning from 2000-2001 to 2003-2004 financial year. Myanmar education is basically run by government ministries and most universities are based in the divisions of Yangon and Mandalay. Popa Hill, in the Pegu Mountains, Myanmar. Myanmar, also called Burma, country, located in the western portion of mainland Southeast Asia.In 1989 the country’s official English name, which it had held since 1885, was changed from the Union of Burma to the Union of Myanmar; in the Burmese language the country has been known as Myanma (or, more precisely, Mranma Prañ) since the 13th century. In 1989 the country’s official English name, which it had held since 1885, was changed from the Union of Burma to the Union of Myanmar; in the Burmese language the country has been known as Myanma (or, more precisely, Mranma Prañ) since the 13th century. The upper courses of these rivers all flow through deep gorges within a short distance of each other, separated by steep, sheer peaks. General Information . The number of female students enrolled in school rose 61% (by 45,000 students) from 1911-1921, and another 82% (100,000 students) from 1921 to 1931 with expansion of the colonial and private education system, primarily in the form of all-girls schools. The Bassein River (Pathein River) drains the southern Rakhine Mountains, and the Yangon River (Rangoon River) drains the Bago Mountains; both enter the Irrawaddy at the delta. According to Ministry of Education (MoE) figures, in the 2015/16 school year Myanmar had 45,387 schools catering to 8.85m children. Starting with pre-colonial forms of schooling, which occurred almost entirely outside the confines of the state, the chapter traces the evolution through colonisation and the country’s independence to the non-state and state-provided education systems that exist today. In 1884 Yangon College was established and was affiliated to Calcutta University in India. Browse by country. The National Education Strategic Plan (NESP) 2016-21 was developed as a result of a nationwide comprehensive education sector review, which started in 2012. Myanmar's educational system has been suffering from a proportionately declining budget. Indawgyi Lake, in the northern hills, runs some 15 miles (24 km) from north to south and 8 miles (13 km) from east to west; it is one of the largest natural inland lakes of Southeast Asia. Abstract. The Myanmar government has made reform of the entire higher education system a national priority. The basin was deeply excavated by the predecessors of the Irrawaddy, Chindwin, and Sittang rivers; the valleys are now occupied by these rivers, which cover the ancient soft sandstones, shales, and clays with alluvial deposits. From … The Tenasserim plains also are drained by short and rapid rivers, which enter the Gulf of Martaban. In Ayeyawady Division, there are 12 universities and colleges; 9 in Bago division; 1 in Chin State; 8 in Kachin State; 3 in kayah State; 4 in Kayin State; 14 in Magway division; 32 in … Flowing entirely through Myanmar, it is navigable for nearly 1,000 miles (1,600 km). Following an optional pre-school period, children enter primary school for 5 compulsory years. This region contains the sources of several of Asia’s great rivers, including the Irrawaddy, which rises and flows wholly within Myanmar, and the Salween (Thanlwin), which rises to the north in China. One of the primary areas that would benefit from reform is Burma’s education system. Its great tributary, the Chindwin, drains the western region. During British colonial rule, educational access for women improved tremendously. Science, Technology and Innovation. Engineering takes 6 year of study and … Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, Council on Foreign Relations - Understanding Myanmar, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Burma, Myanmar - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Myanmar - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Currently, Myanmar high schools go up to 10 th standard, or 11 th grade, while other countries have a 12-grade system and a university entrance exam which we don’t have. This was mirrored by an increase in female employment. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Education since 1975 An important goal of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (LPDR) government was to establish a system of universal primary education by 1985. Then in 1866, the British established an education centre in lower Myanmar and the monastic education system was transformed into classroom education. Sri Lanka, India, and Indonesia are just a few places where you might travel to get a taste for new cultues, cuisines, and languages. Children currently spend five years at primary school, four in lower secondary and two in upper secondary. One of the main drivers is the recognition of the important role of human capital to the economic development goals of the country. Then for the general public to be able to read, write and calculate, basic training courses known by Ah Thone Lone were implemented. Ruins of ancient Buddhist shrines and pagodas, Pagan, Myanmar. It simply highlights a need to accompany investment in the expansion of the system with policies that enable access to tertiary education for those who are most able to benefit. The plateau was formed during the Mesozoic Era (about 250 to 65 million years ago) and thus is a much older feature than the western mountains, but the plateau also shows more-recent and intensive folding, with north-south longitudinal ranges rising steeply to elevations of 6,000 to 8,600 feet (1,800 to 2,600 metres) above the plateau surface. In the pre-colonial era, male education was emphasised in the traditional Buddhist monastic education system. At independence, Myanmar had the highest literacy rate in … In 2005 the government began to shift its administrative centre, first to the city of Pyinmana (some 200 miles [320 km] north of Yangon) and then to Nay Pyi Taw (Naypyidaw), a newly constructed city near Pyinmana. Historically, Burma, officially called Myanmar, has not supported and has even been hostile to education. Myanmar - History Background; Myanmar - Educational System—overview; Myanmar - Administration, Finance, Educational Research; Myanmar - Teaching Profession; Myanmar - Summary; Education Encyclopedia - StateUniversity.com Global Education Reference Myanmar 2018 Education Budget Brief Introduction In its latest update to its PFM Strategy, MoPF stressed on the need for transparency of public financial management system, and encouraged the release of budgetary information to stakeholders and the public, referring inter alia to a … 1.1.2 Education and People with Disabilities in Myanmar The history of education for PWDs in Myanmar has seen numerous plans made by the government for the benefit of PWDs but has yet to find success in implementation. The Chin are constantly persecuted by the present military dictatorship. Participation in Education . Myanmar. The NESP represents an important milestone for education in Myanmar, as the country’s very first education sector plan in the context of a major transition towards democracy. In the same region, however, when the soil has a low clay content, it becomes saline under high evaporation and is recognizable by its yellow or brown colour. At the apex of its delta, the Irrawaddy breaks up into a vast network of streams and empties into the Andaman Sea through multiple mouths. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In the dry belt of the central region are found red-brown soils rich in calcium and magnesium. The northern mountains consist of a series of ranges that form a complex knot at Mount Hkakabo. Sort out the facts in this quiz all about the diverse countries and cities around Asia. Then after 1962 some of these faculties were transformed into separate universities. The first teachers’ training school was established in Yangon in the year 1876. In the deltaic regions formed by the Irrawaddy and Sittang rivers, the landscape is absolutely flat, and the monotony is relieved only by a few blocks of erosion-resistant rocks that are never more than 60 feet (18 metres) high. Corrections? Stretching from latitude 10° N to about 28° 30′ N, Myanmar is the northernmost country of Southeast Asia; it is shaped like a kite with a long tail that runs south along the Malay Peninsula. The Mon context offers another successful case study. In terms of plate tectonics, this knot marks the northeastern limit of the encroaching Indian-Australian Plate, which has been colliding with the southern edge of the Eurasian Plate for roughly the past 50 million years and thrusting up the mountain ranges of Myanmar and beyond. Primary Education. About three-fifths of Myanmar’s surface is drained by the Irrawaddy and its tributaries. The French system of education was replaced with a Laotian curriculum, although lack of teaching materials has impeded effective instruction. Of these, some 63%, or 28,519 facilities, were primary schools (with 5.18m students) and 14%, or 6224 institutions, were lower … In the centre of the basin and structurally connected with the Bago Mountains and their northern extension is a line of extinct volcanoes with small crater lakes and eroded cones, the largest being Popa Hill, at 4,981 feet (1,518 metres). Education and Literacy. Education System. The coastal areas consist of the narrow Rakhine and Tenasserim plains, which are backed by the high ranges of the Rakhine and Tenasserim mountains and are fringed with numerous islands of varying sizes. Then again a thirty-year national education plan starting from 2001-2002 till 2030-2031 financial year has been earmarked and five short-term planning periods have been implemented. After gaining independence in 1948, the government launched the new education system as part of the “Welfare Plans” in 1953. dual–administration education system). Associate Professor of Asian Studies, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu. Historically, Myanmar had a high quality education system Traditionally, children were taught at monasteries, and later following British colonization, there was a shift towards a westernized public school system. Nearly all schools are government-operated, but recently, there has been an increase in privately funded schools (which specialise in English). The vast majority of children in Myanmar attend government-run schools, beginning formal classes each June once they have reached five years of age. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. A brief history of education in Myanmar The education of Myanmar first began during the time of ancient kings and had been regarded as important and significant. Myanmar, also known as Burma, was long considered a pariah state while under the rule of an oppressive military junta from 1962 to 2011. Myanmar has a long tradition of educational achievement, and about nine-tenths of the population is literate. Universities offer bachelor's degree programs, master's degree programs, and doctorate degree programs. In 2005, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs officially announced that Burma education was reaching an international standard and the government had fully entitled to 156 universities and colleges in Myanmar. Schooling is compulsory until the end of elementary school. Since Myanmar’s internal conflicts are long-lasting and complex, the new education system should help people understand the underlying causes of current ethnic conflicts, contribute to social transformation and the peace process as well as learn non-violent ways of responding to conflict. The Education Reconstruction Committee of 1947 decided that Myanmar needed a homogeneous system of schools and that the education system had to be state provided and state controlled (Lwin 2000:5). Secondary education consists of a four-year cycle followed by a two-year cycle. Since 1971, four-year education plans were laid down. From north to south, the Patkai Range, Naga Hills, and Chin Hills form the border between India and Myanmar. Northward, the plateau merges into the northern mountains, and southward it continues into the Dawna Range and the peninsular Tenasserim Mountains (Tanintharyi Mountains), each a series of parallel ranges with narrow valleys. in Forestry, 5-6 years of study. The ESS was begun in 1990 and Phase I—Final Report (of the diagnostic phase) was completed in 1992. Symposiums were held on the basic education sector and plans were drawn up for implementation. The provision of education and health care is very limited and what exists is under-resourced. The Shan Plateau to the east rises abruptly from the central basin, often in a single step of some 2,000 feet (600 metres). Later in 1947, the first State Teachers’ Training College (S.T.T.C) was opened in Yangon. In 1922, the Department of Education was established at Yangon University College and the diploma education course was introduced. Therefore, kids, especially boys attended the traditional Buddhist monastic education system. While there has been a sizable increase in the number of schools, colleges, universities, and teachers during the last five years, the percentage of total education expenditure declined … Then in June, 1925 Mandalay College was founded as an affiliated institution to University of Yangon. Many of its tributaries are more than 300 miles (480 km) long and join the Salween in cascades. Universities in Myanmar remain highly centralized and state run. All rights reserved. The University of Yangon Act was passed by the Myanmar Legislative Council in September 1920 and the foundation of Yangon University took place in December 1920. The mountain ranges generally run from north to south. When Myanmar gained her independence, new education plans were drawn up and since 1952, four year education plans were implemented. The higher education system follows a 4-1-3 year program with 4 years for a bachelor's degree, one year of qualifying classes, and 3 years for a master's degree. There is a very high level of enthusiasm and … Education specialists agree that the curriculum is badly in need of reform and would also benefit from the introduction of modern teaching methods and technology. The Sittang flows into the Gulf of Martaban of the Andaman Sea, and, for a comparatively short river, it has a large valley and delta. Myanmar has two major lakes. The highland regions of Myanmar are covered with highly leached, iron-rich, dark red and reddish brown soils. Updates? Education in Myanmar is the main theme of the seminar that was held at the Australian National University, Centre for UNESCO building at 5 Liversidge Street on Wednesday, 31 March 2004 at 4:30 p.m. 2. Progress and Completion in Education. Omissions? When protected by forest cover, these soils absorb the region’s heavy rain, but they erode quickly once the forest has been cleared. In terms of opportunity, by the time we are able to implement this education strategic plan, our education system will be compatible with other countries at least in terms of system. The Education Sector Study (ESS), a collaborative effort of the Ministry of Education, UNESCO and the UN Development Program (UNDP), was a watershed in the development of education in Myanmar. The mountains consist of old crystalline rocks surrounded by hard, tightly folded sedimentary rocks on either side. Teaching revolves around textbook instruction with little to no research focus. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Inle Lake is fed by dozens of streams. In Myanmar once also known as Burma decades of political conflict have reduced a once-proud education system to one that is lagging sadly. Launching New Programs Since Myanmar’s internal conflicts are long-lasting and complex, the new education system should help people understand the underlying causes of current ethnic conflicts, contribute to social transformation and the peace process as well as learn non-violent ways of responding to conflict. Myanmar, also called Burma, country, located in the western portion of mainland Southeast Asia. Discussions about the education system in Myanmar often tend to be dominated by the curriculum. The basic read, write and calculate training courses known by Ah Thone Lone began in the year 1964-1965. The basin is divided into two unequal parts, the larger Irrawaddy valley and the smaller Sittang valley, by the Bago Mountains. In 1947, it was upgraded to a degree college. Then work on education research and census on education was also carried out. Myanmar’s history of enforced Burmanisation since the era of Ne Win, when all schools were nationalised and Bamar saga became the only language allowed in schools, resulted in widespread resistance on the part of many ethnic groups. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The story of the education system in Myanmar is closely interweaved with the political situation. After the independence, the public schools started reaching all parts of… The lowland regions are covered with alluvial soils—mainly silt and clay. , Naga Hills, and doctorate degree programs ministries and most universities based. Master 's degree programs, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica and since 1952, four year plans... All about the diverse countries and cities around history of myanmar education system persecuted by the Irrawaddy and its tributaries, are! 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