It is stored and concentrated in the gallbladder. Motility- IF normal motility is a steady movement of food…, The chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with wate…, propulsive movements and mixing movements, mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines and rect…, -lines internal cavity/ lumen... -simple columnar epithelial cell…, Anatomy & Physiology The Digestive System, the process of physically and chemically breaking food particl…, body system that breaks down food into smaller molecules that…, the process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall…, motility... secretion... digestion... absorption, type of motility... push contents forward through the digestive…, type of motility... serves 2 fxns:... 1) mixing food with digestiv…, consist of water, electrolytes, and specific organic constitue…, Mucus functions in... ANSWER:... lubricatio…, mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa, Terminal Learning Objective:... -Enabling…, Given the digestive system, diagram the process of digestion a…, The process by which nutrients from foods are taken into the c…, The process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall…, A term used to describe food after it has been chewed and mixe…, Animal Nutrition - Module A: digestive physiology, Digestion starts in the stomach Absorption starts in the small…. Peristalsis. Specifically, the digestive system takes in food (ingests it), breaks it down physically and chemically into nutrient molecules (digests it), and absorbs the nutrients into the bloodstream, then, it rids the body of indigestible remains (defecates). Popular physiology quizzes : 1 - the nervous system: test your knowledge of nervous system physiology. Boundless Anatomy and Physiology. Physiology Digestive System study guide by cfalgo1 includes 479 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. liver. The digestive system includes the organs of the alimentary canal and accessory structures. Aids in digestion. Learn basics of the digestive system, with a particular emphasis on liver physiology. 3 - the digestive system: learn the physiology of the digestive system. Although the small intestine is the workhorse of the system, where the majority of digestion occurs, and where most of the released nutrients are absorbed into the blood or lymph, each of the digestive system organs makes a vital … These components can be re-channeled directly into the small intestine upon removal of the gallbladder. Linked to the "Maturity 2" case unit. Digestive system anatomy quizlet. colon. blood of the gastric venous blood is slightly alkaline due to movement of HCO3-, NT and hormones bind to their receptos on basolateral surface of parietal cells to directly stimulate or inhibit HCl secretion, some NT and hormones bind to receptors on the surface nearby ECLcells, how does acetylcholine stimulate HCl secretion, released by parasympathetic fibers (vagus nerve), peptide hormone released from antral G cells, it blocks histamines effect on H2 receptors, how does histamine stimulate HCl secretion, released from ECL cells and acts in paracrine fashion on H2 receptors on parietal cells to stimulate HCl secretion, what other factors stimulate histamine release, blocks H2 receptors and reduces HCl secretion, how does somatostatin inhibit HCl secretion, released from antral D cells and inhibits actions of ECL cells, G cells, and parietal cells to decrease histamine, gastrin, HCl secretion, how do prostaglandins inhibit HCl secretion, decrease prostaglandin synthesis and increases HCl secretion through disinhibition, environmental stimuli (smell, taste, conditioning)traveling to brain that produces reflex activation of parasympathetic circuits (vagus), several gastric stimuli produce large reflex increase in HCl secretion, products of protein digestion in the duodenum stimulate some continued secretion of gastrin by G cells, parasympathetic stimulation of antral G cells, vagal fibers contacting G cells release GRP (gastrin releasing peptide) to stimulate antral G cells, how does decreasing pH of gastric fluid switch off HCl secretion, as it becomes more acidic pH inhibits further HCl secretion (negative feedback), how are proteolytic enzymes secreted in pancreatic fluid, in inactive form to prevent autodigestion of pancreatic tissue, buffer chyme in duodenum and digestion of starches, proteins, and lipids, electrolytes included in pancreatic fluid, neutralizes chyme emptied into the duodenum, tissues involved in formation of pancreatic fluid, in pancreatic islets that make up about 2% of pancreatic tissue, how much pancreatic fluid is secreted in one day, how is amylase, lipases, and proteases stored in pancreas, in zymogen granules in acinar cells near apical surfaces, function of ductar cells and centroacinar cells of pancreas, how is pancreatic fluid electrolyte composition altered by flow rate, increasing flow rate produces increase in concentration of HCO3- (selective stimulation), decrease in CL-, what happens in the pancreas during the cephalic and gastric phases, what happens in the pancreas during intestinal phase, released by duodenal I cells when protein and fatty acid digestion reaches duodenum, released by duodenal S cells in response to presence of H+ in the duodenum, pancreatic digestive enzymes require what pH to function, hepatocytes and bile duct epithelial cells produce and secrete bile into the, bile duct where it is transported to gall bladder, cholesterol derivative is conjugated to either the amino acid glycine or taurine to form primary bile salts, secretion of water and electrolytes in bile are stimulated by, phospholipids make up _____ of organic component of bile, what substances participate in micelle formation, cholesterol makes up ____ of bile organic components in bile, hemoglobin breakdown releases bilirubin into blood, bilirubin glucoronide makes up ____ of organic components of bile, name the two primary bile acids formed in the hepatocytes, what is cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid derived from, cholesterol in a reaction catalyzed by cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylasae (rate limiting step), when hepatocytes covalently attach glycine or taurine to bile acid, when bacteria in intestin remove hydroxyl group for primary bile acids using the enzyme 7 alpha dehydroxylase, how much bile salts can the liver make in one day, what hormone stimulates the epithelium of bile ducts to release water and electorlytes to bile, absorbs fluid in isosmotic fashion resulting in no tonicity change but a change in concentration of organic compounds, what stimulates contraction of gall bladder and relaxation of sphincter of Oddi, 30 minutes after a meal ______ spurts of bile are driven into duodenum, what effects do bile salts returning to the liver have, bile salts returning to liver inhibit cholesterol 7 alpha hydroxylase, the returning bile salts stimulate more bile secretion, digestive enzymes that breakdown carbohydrates, converts starch into short glucose chains or disaccharides, monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, fructose), converts proteins to amino acids and oligopeptides, convert proteins to oligopeptides, tripeptides, dipeptides and amino acids, convert proteins to oligopeptides to tripeptides, dipeptides, and amino acids, convert tripeptides and dipeptides to amino acids, converts triglycerides to monoglycerides and 2 free fatty acids, secreted by pancreas in active form and works in upper small intestine to convert cholesterol to cholesterol esters and free fatty acids, secreted by the pancreas and must be activated by trypsin, monoglyceride, fatty acids, cholesterol, lysolecithin, how are carbohydrates and proteins transported across apical membrane, cotransport with Na+ for glucose and galactose, how are carbohydrates and proteins transported over basolateral membrane, action of hydrolytic enzymes that break covalent bonds within nutrient molecules such that resulting products are able to be absorbed, movement of digested nutrients, water, vitamins, and electrolytes across intestinal epithelium and into the villar capillaries, stomach (very little due to lack of villi and tight junctions between epithelial cells), larger surface area for absorption (1000 fold), in small intestine and diminish moving in a caudal direction toward lower intestine, large visible circular folds in small intestine, microscopic finger like projections of intestinal mucosa, microscopic cilia like projections on apical surface of intestinal epithelial cells, absorption through intestinal epithelial cells, what type of disease cause a disruption in tight junctions, what pH is required for optimal carbohydrate digestion, digesting starch to short glucose chains and disaccharides, where does the majority of starch digestion occur, small intestine, duodenum and upper jejunum, what enzyme is responsible for most of starch digestion, alpha dextrins, maltose, maltotriose, and trehalose get broken down to what monosaccharides, lactose is broken down into what monosaccharides, sucrose is broken down into what monosaccharides, what stereoisomor of monosaccharides can be absorbed, what transporter is used to move glucose and galactose across the apical membrane, what transporters are used to move glucose galactose and fructose through the basolateral membrane, what transportor is used to move fructose across the apical surface of the intestinal epithelelas cells, which pH is optimal for protein digestion, does protein defficiency follow gastric bypass, remove amino acids from C termini of proteins, where does most of protein digestion occur, most protein is absorbed in the bloodstream as. Serosa, 1. epithelium... 2. lamina propria... 3. muscularis mucosa, Meissner's (Submucosal) Plexus is the network of nerves that s…, ____: muscular contractions that mix and move forward the cont…, digestive _____: consist of water, electrolytes, specific orga…, biochemical breakdown of structurally complex foodstuffs into…, Small units resulting from digestion, along with water, vitami…, 1. mucosa... 2. submucosa... 3. muscularis ... 4…, peristalsis (move)... segmentation (mixing), __________smooth muscle controlled by parasympathetic system. The function of the digestive system is to break down the foods you eat, release their nutrients, and absorb those nutrients into the body. Peristalsis is the slow contraction of smooth muscles around the pipes of the … C. resorption of water and compaction of feces. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM DIPALI HARKHANI 2. Which of the following is NOT an accessory structure of the digestive system? Start studying Chapter 14: Digestive System (Physiology). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Video Animation: Human Digestive System Physiology (Alila Medical Media) References. What are the four accessory structures of the digestive system? liver gallbladder pancreas spleen. What structures collectively produce chemicals that aid in dig…, 1. What are the two major subsystems of the digestive system? Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion: 10 Facts That Explain How the Body Absorbs Nutrients. secreated by pancreatic acinar cells adn prevents trypsinogen from autocatalyzing formation of trypsin. 1. bile is mixed with the food in the small intestine. The pancreatic duct transports secretions from the pancreas to the stomach. 4. The easiest way to understand the digestive system is to divide its organs into two main categories. The Digestive System The proper functioning of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is imperative for our well being and life -long health. Ensure that subs. If you get a question right the next one will appear automatically, but if you get it wrong we'll tell you the correct answer. Videos, follow-along-notes, and practice questions. APPENDIX A: Diseases, Injuries, and Disorders of the Organ Systems. Submucosa... 3. Anatomy & Physiology of the Digestive System Chapter Exam Instructions. Each of the quizzes below includes 15 multiple-choice style questions. Development of Digestive System: Sagittal section of embryo at about four weeks showing the primitive gut. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. absorbed as free iron or heme iron (animal tissue), Vitamin D is required for adequate calcium absorption, steps for nutrient entry into bloodstream, what receptors do parasympathetic postganglionic cells have on them, what is the mechanism of gastric H+ secretion, carbonic anhydrase combines water and CO2 from aerobic metabolism to form carbonic acid which dissociates into H+ and HCO3, what factors regulate gastric H+ secretion, why isnt the gastric mucosa eroded and digeted by H+ and pepsin that are present in gastric lumen, mucus secretion which forms protective barrier and contains HCO3 which neutralizes gastric acid, how does H. pylori contribute to duodenal ulcers, bacterium attaches to gastric epithelium and releases cytotoxins that breakdown protective mucus and underlying epithelium, what is the role of urease in peptic ulcers, converts urea to ammonia which alkalinizes local environment making it hospitable for bacteria, describe how the 13C urea breath test works, what are the sources of fluids added to the GI tract, what type of absorption is intestinal fluid absorption, isosmotic absorption (osmolarity is unchanged), what is the major driving ion in intestinal absorption, what is the apical mechanism of intestinal absorption, co-transport of Na with monosaccharides or amino acids, what electrolyte undergoes net absorption in the jejunum, what electrolyte undergoes net absorption in the ileum, what is the fate of most secreted fluid in the intestinal fluid secretion, reabsorbed by the small intestinal villar cells, what is the major ion that drives secretion of intestinal fluid, what is the second messenger associated with intestinal fluid secretion, what are the factors that stimulate intestinal fluid secretion, what are the major electrolytes lost in diarrhea, 3 causes of electrolyte loss in intestine, list the steps for bilirubin production and excretion, hepatocytes extract bilirubin from blood and conjugate with glucouronic acid, a failure to reabsorb fluid in the GI would result, in large decreases in total body water and would be life threatening, total fluid balance requires that fluid intake must equal, average fluid intake is usually how much per day, average fluid excretion is usually how much per day, how much of the 2L/day is lost in the urine, intestinal routes of fluid movement in the small intestine include, intestinal routes of fluid movement in the colon include, how much fluid is added to the GI everyday, absorption of fluid where osmolarity of any fluid remaining in intestinal lumen does not change, what is the major site of fluid absorption in small intestine, apical exchange (secondary active) with H+ or cotransport with monosaccharides or amino acids, how is Na+ moved across the basolateral membrane in the jejunum, same as in the ileum except Cl- is the major anion absorbed with Na+, fluid absorption in the colon is regulated by, what is the mechanism of fluid absorption in the colon, apical membrane channels move Na+ down its gradient from lumen into cells, mineralcorticoid hormone that increases syntehsis of apical Na+ and K+ channels, and Na+K+ ATPases, high intestinal flow rate and electrolyte values in colon, where are crypt cells of Lieberkuhn located, it provides a watery medium for solute absorption by villar cells, apical channels in crypt cells transport Cl- into the lumen, when are Ach and VIP released to activate G proteins, after activation of local reflexes that detect the presence of chyme, how does cholera toxin effect intestinal fluid secretion, results in G alpha s protein remaining activated constantly, decreased surface area diarrhea occurs when, undigested solutes pulls water and electrolytes into feces, excessive secretion that outpaces absorption caused by enteropathic bacteria (E. coli, V. Cholerae), increased motility of the GI tract with not enough time for absorption of fluid, electrolyte disturbances associated with diarrhea, HCO3- loss (hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis), yellow discoloration of skin or sclera of eyes, accumulation in blood or bilirubin or conjugated bilirubin, obstructive jaundice presentation and cause, dark colored urine and clay colored stool due to high urinary concentration and low fecal concentration of conjugated bile, due to newborn liver not adequately conjugating and excreting bilirubin, macrophages breakdown RBC hemoglobin to make bilirubin, some urobilinogen in the intestines gets reabsorbed into the blood, what is a trace element binding protein that is made int he liver, what are the causes of lactose intolerancce, lactase deficiency or a deficiency in SGLT1, why does lactose intolerance cause diarrhea, lactose remains in lumen and osmotically active, if lactose is not digested and absorbed intestinal bacteria metabolize some of the lactose, unmeasured solutes in feces (Na+, K+ times 2 to account for anions), what are some of the electrolytes in oral rehydration, how much fluid is ingested and secreted in GI tract, if average volume of fluid in feces is 200mL / day how much fluid is absorbed by GI daily, how much fluid is excreted and in what form per day, crypt cells of Lieberkuhn keep Galphas in active state (ADP ribosylation of G alpha s subunit), what is the fecal osmolar gap like in a patient with E. coli or Cholera, not present because the diarrhea was caused by excess secretion of solutes that are measured in determining total fecal osmolarity. The digestive system has a complex system of food movement and secretion regulation, which are vital for its proper function. Search for: Diseases and Disorders of the Digestive System. Muscularis... 4. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. GI tract is a continuous tube extending through the ventral cavity from the mouth to the anus –it consists of the mouth , oral cavity , oropharynx , esophagus , Peritonitis. a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; aids in the digestion of fats. An overall score is given at … The function of the digestive system is to break down the foods you eat, release their nutrients, and absorb those nutrients into the body. The digestive system is a broader term that includes other structures, including the accessory organs of digestion, such as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Choose your answers to the questions and click 'Next' to see the next set of questions. The Digestive System The proper functioning of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is imperative for our well being and life -long health. The process by which food is broken down into simple chemical compounds that can be absorbed and used as nutrients or eliminated by the body is called digestion. 3. duodenum. pass one way and only when needed and not…. Learn digestive system biology anatomy physiology answers with free interactive flashcards. Anatomy And Physiology II -- Digestive System - Part A Quiz 9 Questions | By Willedmond | Last updated: Dec 31, 2012 | Total Attempts: 2649 Questions All questions 5 questions 6 questions 7 questions 8 questions 9 questions Choose from 500 different sets of digestive system biology anatomy physiology answers flashcards on Quizlet. The Digestive System Quiz: Structure of the Digestive Tract Wall; Digestive Enzymes; Quiz: Digestive Enzymes; The Mouth; Quiz: The Mouth; Function of the Digestive System; Quiz: Function of the Digestive System; Structure of the Digestive Tract Wall; The Pharynx; The Esophagus; Quiz: The Esophagus; Deglutition (Swallowing) Quiz: Deglutition (Swallowing) The Stomach 2. Organization of The Digestive System Organs of the digestive system are divided into 2 main group : the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and accessory structures . This flashcard set will review the process of food digestion. _______- acts as a disassembly line... -t…. What does the digestive system do? Mucosa... 2. 4 - the integumentary system: Do you know the functions of the skin? intracellular (gastric parietal cell) CO2 and H2O are converted by carbonic anhydrase first to carbonic acid. The gut is an endoderm-derived structure. Although the small intestine is the workhorse of the system, where the majority of digestion occurs, and where most of the released nutrients are absorbed into the blood or lymph, each of the digestive system organs makes a vital … 2 - the endocrine system: do you understand how it functions? A comprehensive database of more than 87 digestive system quizzes online, test your knowledge with digestive system quiz questions. Questions about the GI tract. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Last Updated on November 19, 2020 by Sagar Aryal. begins in the stomach in the very acidic enviroment, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine; largest…, Anatomy and Physiology 12 - Digestive System - Digestive System. Start studying Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 16 Digestive System. This is an interactive quiz which features a diagram of the digestive system to label with the following parts: mouth, esophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine. Start studying digestive system. refers to the stomach and intestine, and sometimes to all the structures from the mouth to the anus. WHAT IS THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM? Choose from 500 different sets of digestive physiology flashcards on Quizlet. anatomy and physiology lab digestive system Quizlet April 25th, 2018 - Quizlet provides anatomy and physiology lab digestive system activities flashcards and games Start learning today for free' 3 / 21 'PPT – Anatomy and Physiology of the Digestive System The function of the digestive system is to break down the foods you eat, release their nutrients, and absorb those nutrients into the body. It pulls in food and pushes it through organs and structures where the processing happens. Although the small intestine is the workhorse of the system, where the majority of digestion occurs, and where most of the released nutrients are absorbed into the blood or lymph, each of the digestive system organs makes a vital … Accessory digestive organs, despite their name, are critical to the function o… Digestion Definition. What 2 actions are performed by the muscularis? lipase an enzyme secreted in the small intestine that catalyzes the breakdown of fats into individual fatty acids that can be absorbed into the bloodstream. Salivary amylase secreted into the oral cavity starts the digestion of proteins. This-quiz-uses-javascript! amino acids. (gastrointestinal tract) (alimentary canal) layer that faces the lumen of the GI tract, lies beneath mucosa and is comprised of CT containing blood vessels and embedded submucosal glands, lies beneath the submucosal plexus and is composed of a thick layer of smooth muscle fibers oriented perpendicular to long axis of GI tract, participates in mixing, propulsion, and gating of GI contents, lies beneath circular smooth muscle layer and is composed of nerves that innervate circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers and submucosal plexus, lies beneath submucosa and contains nerves that innervate nearby mucosal muscle and epithelial cells of mucosa, lies beneath myenteric plexus and is made of layer of smooth muscle, facilitate mixing and propulsion of GI contents, lies beneath longitudinal smooth muscle and is an outer epithelial and connective tissue membrane that makes up the inner lining of the peritoneal cavity, where are parasympathetic postganglionic neurons located, originate witithin submucosal and myenteric plexuses, what do parasympathetic postganglionic neurons release, what are the targets of parasympathetic postganglionic neurons, what activity is promoted by parasympathetic nervous system in enteric system, promotes digestive processes such as mixing, propulsion, and secretion, where do sympathetic postganglionic neurons originate, within the celiac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, and hypogastric ganglia, what NT does sympathetic postganglionic neurons release, what are the targets for postganglionic sympathetic neurons, what activity does the sympathetic nervous system promote in the enteric system, substances that are released from endocrine cells, enter circulation, and act distantly, substances released from endocrine cells and diffuse locally to act on nearby targets, substances synthesized in cell bodies of enteric neurons and are released from varicosities directly onto target tissues, stimulates anorexigenic neurions to increase satiety, when increased blood levels of glucose or other nutrients, it stimulates anorexigenic neurons to increase satiety, stimulates orexigenic neurons to increase appetite, what tissues are perfused by the splanchnic ciruclation, what factors increase blood flow in splanchnic circulation, what factors decrease blood flow in splanchnic circulation, deliver water and nutrients and vitamins to the body, what are the major processes of the GI tract, what is another term for submucosal plexus, what does the submucosal plexus innervate, mucosal muscle and epithelial cells of the mucosa, circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers, what layers must nutrients go through to reach capillaries, the enteric nervous system is located wholly in the, the enteric nervous system can direct GI processes in the absences of, what are the major innervating nerves of the parasympathetic nervous system, where are the postganglionic cell bodies located in the parasympathetic system, the epithelial cells of the mucosa are responsible for, what type of receptor cells are located in the mucosa, what type or receptors in the mucosa are connected to afferent neurons, preganglionic neurons from the parasympathetic system originate in the, reflex involving both afferents and efferents within vagus nerve, afferent (mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors), what percentage of vagal fibers modulate smooth muscle and glandular activity, sympathetic postganglionic fibers arise in the, the sympathetic system as a _____ mix of afferent and efferent fibers, what are the main two neurotransmitters in the enteric system, how many neurotransmitters are normally secreted by enteric neurons, pathway that hormones take when made in the GI tract, activity causes increase appetite and decreased satiety, causes increased satiety or decreased hunger, what hormone is more important in long term control of hunger/ satiety, what hormone is more important in short term control of hunger/satiety, venous blood flows into the liver and mixes in, there is a marked increase in splanchnic blood flow when, what are some vasodilators that are released during digestive processes, how does decreased local oxygen effect splanchnic blood flow, reflects increase in metabolism and increases blood flow in gut, how does parasympathetic effect blood flow in the splanchnic circulation, stimulate fibers in stomach and lower colon, what features are present in hepatic sinusoid blood, high in nutrient due to intestine absorption, oscillating membrane potentials in smooth muscle fibers that set the frequency of contractions, normal frequency of slow waves in stomach, duodenum and ileum, what frequency in the digestive system controls the frequency of contractions, what determines the force of contractions in digestive systems, bolus is pushed voluntarily to back of mouth, bolus moved through pharynx into esophagus, bolus moved from esophagus into the stomach, peristaltic constrictor waves that increase in strength as they move toward the antrum, periodic contractions (every 90 minutes) that occur during fasating to clear stomach of remaining chyme, what substances are emptied into the duodenum first, what factors slow emptying of substances into the duodenum, concentric contractions that occur simultaneously at intervals along small intestine, contractile waves that move along 3length of SI for about 3-5 cm in order to propel chyme forward, similar to mixing segmentation contractions in SI, propels feces relativly long distances in few minutes, two types of muscle tissue in the GI tract, describe unitary smooth muscle in GI tract, contains gap junctions that permit rapid spread of action potentials and subsequent coordinated contraction of large areas of smooth muscle tissue, where is the skeletal muscle in GI tract found, periodic contractions for mixing and propulsion, slow waves are though to be driven by oscillations in, the contractile force produced by slow waves is, weak but sufficient for some tonic contractions, slow waves allow what type of contractions, long contractions to provide tone by allowing calcium to enter cells, pacemaker cells in the myenteric plexus that initiate slow waves, when norepinephrine activates alpha 1 adrenergic receptors on smooth muscle what occurs, when norepinephrine activates beta 2 adrenergic receptors in smooth muscle what occurs, generally when acetylcholine release from parasympathetic fibers is considered, what areas does norepinephrine cause contraction, extrinsic modulation on smooth muscle fibers controls the, production and frequency of action potentials, action potentials in smooth muscle fibers produce what type of muscle contractions, the greater the action potential frequency the, when bolus of food in mouth causes reflex inhibition (from brainstem) of the muscles of lower jaw, motor circuits originating in motor cortex can override and control skeletal muscle activity that produces chewing, sensory afferents are mechanoreceptos around opening of pharynx, mechanoreceptors near opening of pharynx detect bolus, does the esophageal phase require sensory input, how long does it take for the bolus to move through esophagus and into the stomach, describe LES relaxation via vagovagal reflex, mechanoreceptors detect stretch of esophageal wall and signal reflex relaxation of LES and orad stomach, inhibition of smooth muscle contraction in the esophageal phase is mediated by the release of, VIP from parasympathetic postganglionic fibers, distension of the esophageal wall if all of the bolus is not moved into the stomach by primary peristaltic wave, reflexes mediated by the enteric nervous system (myenteric plexus), eliminates primary peristalsis, LES relaxation, and receptive relaxation, how does low intraesophageal pressure present a problem, because it is equal to thoracic pressure which is below atmospheric pressure and abdominal pressure, what is the pressure at the midpoint of the esophagus normally, what factors promote gastroesophageal reflux, the mixture of gastric fluid and food that is passed to the gut, when chyme reaches the pylorus they often cause contraction of the pyloric valve so that chyme is deflected back into the stomach, the mixing contractions are powerful enough such that the constrictor waves are able to, push small particles within the chyme through the pylorus, the pylorus is usually open enough to allow, fluids and small particles 1mm3 to pass through, migrating myoelectric complexes occur every, migrating myoelectric complexes are mediated by the action of, factors that increase the force of mixing in the stomach, parasympathetic stimulation using acetylcholine, gastrin, and motilin, factors decreasing the force of mixing in the stomach, sympathetic stimulation via norepinephrine, secretin, and GIP, neural reflexes inhibit gastric emptying into the duodenum, hormonal reflexes that decrease the force of mixing in the stomach, response to the presence of lipids by CCK release, why does acidity inhibit gastric emptying, so that the chyme must be slowly added to the duodenum in order for pancreatic fluid, bile, and intestinal secretions to neutralize the chyme, what pH is required for the digestive enzymes to work, why does the presence of lipids reduce gastric emptying, because lipids require substantial time for digestion, why does the fluid in the duodenum need to be isotonic, to prevent disturbance of electrochemical gradients controlled by epithelial surface transporters, to mix chyme with secretions and digestive enzymes, what sets the frequency and strength of segmentation contractions, frequency is set by the intrinsic slow wave frequency, chyme moves at what rate in the small intestines, how long does it take for chyme to get out of the small intestine, what produces reflex peristalsis in small intestine, how long will chyme stay at the ileocecal valve, several hours until the gastroileal reflex elicits strong peristalsis in the ileum, how does the circular muscle and longitudinal muscle act behind the bollus, infectious diarrhea often triggers powerful and rapid, peristalsis such that chyme can travel long distances with small intestine in minutes, reverse peristalsis begins in small intestine, where are afferents of the vomiting reflex located, the efferents from the vomiting center go where, they project to the small intestine and upper GI tract mostly through the vagus nerve, what are the contents of the colon called, gates the movement of chyme into the cecum and prevents the backflow of feces into the ileum, normally the ileocecal valve is mildly constricted to allow slow movement of chyme into the cecum, haustral contractions are responsible for, how many hours does it take to move feces through the colon using haustral contractions, when is the most common time for mass movements, what condition produces persistent mass movements, local reflexes afferents/ efferents within the GI wall and those that project to and from the sacral spine (parasympathetics via pelvic nerves), what area of the brain controls the external anal spinchter, difficulty swallowing, regurgitation, sensation of food in esophagus, impared peristalsis in distal 2/3 esophagus and failure of LES to relax, buffers acid in food and stabilize elctrochemical gradients across the gut wall, antibacterial enzyme that damages cell walls, conditioning to stimuli associated with food, list constiuents of gastric fluid and what cells each is released from, denature proteins (unfolding and exposing for digestion, glycoprotein needed for transporting vitamin B12 to ileum where it is absorbed, cleaved to its active form pepsin in acidic enviornment of stomach, peptide hormone that stimulates parietal cells to increase HCl secretion, both work together to protect gastric mucosa from HCl, what substances stimulate gastric HCl secretion, for digesting starch, proteins and lipids, buffer acid and stabilize electrochemical gradient across gut wall, what stimulates the release of pancreatic fluids, emulsify lipids and form micelles needed for absorption of most lipids, buffer acid in chyme and stabilize electrochemical gradient across gut wall, which cells modify fluid secreted by acinar cells, modified epithelial cells with contractile filaments that are located in the acini ducts, epithelial cells that line salivary gland ducts, as saliva moves through the duct what electrolytes get moved, NaCl gets reabsorbed (moves out of saliva), What is greater the NaCl reabsorption or the KHCO3 secretion, an increase in salivary flow rate producees an, high flow rate means acinar fluid has less contact time with ductal cells as it flows past, what explains the change in HCO3 during increased salivary rate, sympathetic stimulation of the salivary glands provide, minimal stimulation of salivary secretion, parsympathetic stimulation of the salivary glands strongly, stimulate production and secretion of saliva, it is a muscarinic receptor agonist and blocks the action of acetylcholine, vitamin B12 deficiency and pernicious anemia, what stimulates the release of pepsinogen, parasympathetic activity and low pH conditions, where are the G cells located in the stomach, secreted across basolateral membrane and enters bloodstream.